Baking Basics: Baking Powder vs Baking Soda.

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Become a better baker by learning the real differences between baking powder and baking soda– in easy-to-understand language!

Learn everything you need to know about the differences between baking powder and baking soda. Complete, easy-to-understand details!

Welcome back to my Baking Basics series! In the past few weeks, I had a little logo made. You like? (Thanks Kath!)

Today I’m discussing one of the most confusing subjects in the entire realm of baking. Something that boggles (I accidentally just typed “boogles” ??) the mind of nearly everyone on earth. Or at least those who care. (Me! Me!) What is the difference between baking powder and baking soda? Are they the same? Can I sub one for the other without changing anything else?

If there is one thing that you take away from today’s lesson, let it be this: baking powder and baking soda are absolutely not the same.

Baking powder and baking soda are both leaveners, however they are chemically different.

Learn everything you need to know about the differences between baking powder and baking soda. Complete, easy-to-understand details!

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What is Baking Soda?

Aka bicarbonate of soda or sodium bicarbonate.

Let’s start with baking soda because it’s the most confusing. I’m going to geek out for a sec. First, baking soda is a BASE. Do you remember the science experiment we all did in school? Mixing baking soda with vinegar and watching an eruption of bubbles? Usually we did this in some sort of model volcano contraption. I know you know. When you mix baking soda (BASE) with vinegar (ACID) you get a chemical reaction (an eruption of bubbles!). A product of this reaction is carbon dioxide.

The same exact reaction happens in our cookies, cakes, breads, etc. When a recipe calls for baking soda (BASE), it usually calls for some type of ACID. Like buttermilk, brown sugar, yogurt, lemon juice, vinegar, cream of tartar, molasses, applesauce, natural cocoa powder (not dutch process), or honey. You need this ACID in the recipe to react with the baking soda, which in turn creates carbon dioxide and allows your baked good to rise.

Baking soda is strong. In fact, it is about 3-4x stronger than baking powder. More baking soda in a recipe doesn’t necessarily mean more lift. You want to use *just enough* to react with the amount of acid in the recipe. Too much baking soda and not enough acid means there will be leftover baking soda in the recipe. You do not want that; it creates a metallic, soapy taste in your baked goods. Ick.

Good rule of thumb: I usually use around 1/4 teaspoon of baking soda per 1 cup of flour in a recipe.

Baking soda CAN leaven a baked good when exposed to heat. However, unless it is neutralized with an acid, your finished baked good will likely have a metallic aftertaste– like I mention above. Get it? Got it? Good.

Learn everything you need to know about the differences between baking powder and baking soda. Complete, easy-to-understand details!

What is Baking Powder?

Baking powder contains baking soda. It is a mixture of baking soda, cream of tartar (a dry acid), and sometimes cornstarch. These days, most baking powder sold is double acting. This means that the first leavening occurs when baking powder gets wet– like when you combine the dry and wet ingredients in the recipe. (This is why you cannot prepare some batters ahead of time to bake later– because the baking powder has already been activated.) The second leavening occurs when the baking powder is heated.

Double (first, second) acting.

Since baking powder already contains an acid to neutralize its baking soda, it is most often used when a recipe does not call for an additional acidic ingredient. Like my sugar cookies. However, this isn’t always the case. You can still use baking powder as the leavening agent in recipes calling for an acidic ingredient. Like my lemon cake. In my recipe development, I based my lemon cake recipe off of my vanilla cake recipe. I used buttermilk (acid) instead of regular milk for added moisture and a little tang and subbed a little brown sugar (acid) for granulated sugar– again, for added moisture. I was pleased with the rise and taste of the cake, so I did not experiment with using baking soda.

I know. It’s definitely confusing.

Good rule of thumb: I usually use around 1 teaspoon of baking powder per 1 cup of flour in a recipe.

Learn everything you need to know about the differences between baking powder and baking soda. Complete, easy-to-understand details!

Why do some recipes call for both?

Some recipes call for both baking powder and baking soda. These recipes contain some sort of acid (yogurt, brown sugar, etc), however the carbon dioxide created from the acid and baking soda is not enough to leaven the volume of batter in the recipe. That’s why baking powder is used as well– to add necessary lift.

Basically, the reason for both is because sometimes you need more leavening than you have acid available in the recipe. It’s all about balance.

Another reason to use both baking powder and baking soda is because they affect both browning and flavor. Fine Cooking breaks it down easily: let’s take my buttermilk pancake recipe. In my recipe, buttermilk is used partly for its tangy flavor. If we used only baking soda, it could neutralize all of the buttermilk’s acid. And we’d lose that tanginess! However, by including baking powder as well (which has its own acid), some of the buttermilk’s flavor is left behind, and there is still enough leavening for fluffy pancakes.

Yeah. Take a bite outta that.

Simple and FUN Funfetti Buttermilk Pancakes on

How to Substitute

It’s tricky, which is why I never recommend it without background knowledge (and the expectancy that your baked good will not taste as intended).

If you have a recipe calling for baking soda, you might be able to substitute baking powder. However, you will need up to 4x as much baking powder to get the same amount of leavening. And, depending on the recipe, you might end up with a baked good that’s a little bitter with that much baking powder. You can sub baking soda for baking powder only if you increase the amount of acid in the recipe– which likely changes the taste and texture of your baked good. You’d also need less baking soda since it is about 3-4x stronger.

So, uh, just stick to the recipe!

Don’t Forget– They Expire!

I replace my baking powder and soda every 3 months, just to be sure they are always fresh for my recipes. I always date them on the bottom of the container. If you aren’t a baking addict freak like I am, chances are you’ll have to test your baking powder and soda for effectiveness before using.

How To Test Baking Powder

To test baking powder, pour 3 Tablespoons of warm water into a small bowl. Add 1/2 teaspoon of baking powder. Give it a light stir. The mixture should moderately fizz if the powder is fresh. If there is no reaction, toss the baking powder and buy a fresh package.

How To Test Baking Soda

To test baking soda, pour 3 Tablespoons of white distilled vinegar into a small bowl. Add 1/2 teaspoon of baking soda. Give it a light stir. The mixture should rapidly bubble if the soda is fresh. If there is no reaction, toss the baking soda and buy a fresh package.

Learn everything you need to know about the differences between baking powder and baking soda. Complete, easy-to-understand details!

That’s it for today! Did I completely bore you? Hello?

For anyone still here, don’t forget that baking is CHEMISTRY and it takes practice, trial and error, and the willingness to learn in order to succeed.

Stay tuned for a massively tasty chemistry project tomorrow. Cooooooookies!


    1. I love this!!! I have been looking for a book that talks about the science of cooking because I always want to know “why” recipes are put together the way they are. Unfortunately all science-cooking books I found are no longer in production.

  1. When I was young my babysitter made chocolate chip cookies using the recipe on the package of Toll House chips. The only difference was they would rise up and look like little mountains. Soft and melted on the inside. Could this occur on a change in soda to baking powder or increase in soda? I have been unable to get them to rise like this.

  2. Sally, I adore your recipes and have all three of your outstanding books! I thought your explanation explaining the differences and the chemistry behind baking soda and baking powder fascinating! My question is this, which baking powder do you recommend for baking cookies, cakes etc?

    1. Hi Donna, I’m so happy that you found this helpful! I don’t have a favorite brand – whichever your local store carries is fine as long as it hasn’t expired 🙂

  3. I baked an orange loaf cake using a yellow cake mix and lemon pudding, adding orange juice and vegetable oil and lemon extract. The cake baked nicely but collapsed in the center. It tested fully baked. Why?

    1. For next time leave it 5 to 10 minutes longer in the oven. I had the same issue once. And I had w batches in the oven. The ones I left in the oven longer, came out great and the ones I took out earlier, fell in the middle

  4. I’m diabetic and tried using food-grade vegetable glycerine as a sweetener in a no-flour, no carb recipe. I have two questions:
    1) Is the glycerine acid enough to work with baking powder?
    2) The liquid and the dry ingredients didn’t stay mixed, tho’ I think that’s because there’s no binder. What could I use as a binder that won’t contain any carbs?

  5. Thank so much it was so much help, you you last I baked a cake I used 4 cup of flour instead of 3 and i for got to add the proportion of baking soda so the cake became dens but the test was great any ways thank you for taking time to blog I like it keep it up

  6. Thank you great explanation I have always wondered. I have a neighbor that asked me to bake some oatmeal cookies for her. I compared her recipe to the one I use and hers had baking soda and baking powder I will try it out and see what difference they are will be interesting.

  7. Thanks so much I often bake without a recipe and was never sure which of the baking soda and or baking powder should be used great to know

  8. Hi Sally, I just stumbled upon your website – happily so – because I asked the question of what is the difference between baking soda and baking powder which you answered succinctly Thank you.
    My question revolves around the making of sourdough bread which I recently started July 24/18. I had done 6 batch’s with little or very little success. However I will not give up this time. I heard that baking soda could help the rise of the dough but I did not want my bread to be salty so I chose baking powder instead. Batch number 8 rose better than batch number 7 because I used more baking powder. My long winded question is which is better to use in the sourdough batter.
    Yours Paul L.

  9. Trying to develop a new recipe for my blog, Sally, and this was the most helpful raising agent resource on the web. Thank you!

  10. Sally…Thank you for the lesson. I am the worst when it comes to baking. The joke in our kitchen is that they declare it a disaster area as soon as I open a bag of flour. LOL. I hope to get better but I still imagine there are plenty of burnt muffins in my near future. ( more laughter )

  11. thank you for the explanation! it really helps knowing the facts..
    My question is that I baked some choco chip cookies using brown sugar but they did not spread out as expected. i used baking powder. will it spread if i used baking soda?

  12. Thanks so much for posting this! I am doing a “The Science of Cookies” for the STEM Christmas party and this totally helps me explain some science while we bake.

  13. I have spent hours trying to correctly bake German cookies called “Springerle” cookies. You first roll out the dough and then roll the picture onto them with a special rolling pin. Several times now they come out tilted. One side of the cookie is raised but the other side has fallen or not raised. I’ve tried this in both my oven and my mom’s, and made sure I have fresh ingredients (baking powder). Any thoughts here? There is no butter in my particular version of the recipe. Thank you! Love your articles!!

  14. My mom said she had a “secret” in her shortbread I was wondering if it was baking soda? I made it with her many times, but never saw anything go in that I was unaware of.

  15. Hey, if I’m using baking soda in a chocolate chip cookie, without adding any brown sugar, will the soda still give me a spread or do I need to add an acid like vinegar to get it?
    I used buttermilk in one recipe, again, no brown sugar, but as per my knowledge when there’s liquid acid and soda, you gotta bake it ASAP, so, can this cookie dough be stored or I need to work with it ASAP?

  16. I am confused… you said the rule of thumb is 1 tsp of baking powder per 1 cup of flour, but your sugar cookie recipe calls for 2 1/4 C flour and only 1/2 tsp of baking powder?

    1. Hi Maranda! There are exceptions, of course, and one of those is sugar cookies whose shape is imperative. Too much baking powder = cookies will puff up and lose their shape.

  17. Thank you for all your knowledge. I never had a desire for baking or cooking until lately, and I do love to know the “whys” of what I do, it is like Chemistry. I love knowing all the interactions between the ingredients, which can explain until now I have not been a very good cook. LOL

  18. I always pay attention to “powder vs soda”. Wouldn’t you know it, they changed the container for soda so it looks just like powder, and in a hurry I added powder to my peanut butter blossom cookies. I made a double batch, so there are two tsps in the batter, Will they come out flat? Can I add a tsp of soda to correct my error? This is when Mom came to the rescue, but she passed away last year

  19. I’m really excited about baking again! I just learned about your blog. I’ve been reading all your tidbits. I just went and tested my baking powder. Let me first say that just looking at the dates told me I needed to throw it out. The first can of baking powder had a 2016 date. It still fizzed. Then I found another can that had a date of 2014 (I’m a little embarrassed.) it did not fizz. My baking soda made lava. It is fine. Ok, now a question. Should baking soda stay sealed? What are your thoughts on using baking soda that has been in the fridge soaking up odors? I think that is all for now. I can’t hardly wait for January 1st to see what the challenge will be. I have a good reason to bake. Oh, I know my other question. What is your opinion on the sliding measuring spoons. I sold Pampered Chef about 20 years ago and still use a lot of it. Thanks, AA

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I’m Sally, a cookbook author, photographer, and blogger. My goal is to give you the confidence and knowledge to cook and bake from scratch while providing quality recipes and plenty of pictures. Grab a cookie, take a seat, and have fun exploring! more about Sally