Homemade Buttery Flaky Pie Crust

Today I’m going to teach you everything you need to know about making the perfect buttery flaky pie crust. This is the one and only pie crust recipe I use. It’s been passed down through generations. Stands the test of time. Old-fashioned, yet never out of style. Wins my heart every single time.

salted caramel apple pie

There is nothing more satisfying than making a pie completely from scratch. From the golden crust to the juicy filling and everything in between. Pies are so damn tasty for one reason: they’re time consuming. This shouldn’t scare you! It should intrigue you. Because if you can bake an exceptional homemade pie, congratulations. You’re a talented baker.

Let me help you get there.

As the base holding all of the pie’s contents, pie crust’s flavor is in every single bite. Start with a solid crust and you’re that much closer to pie-fection. !! Today we’re going to explore my pie crust recipe, preparation tips, how-to’s, and troubleshooting.

Pie Crust Ingredients

This crust is made with a few simple ingredients: flour, salt, cold water, and fat.

Start with quality flour. Did you know that not all all-purpose flours are created the same? King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour (adoring fan girl. they do not know I exist.) is my go-to for not only pie crust, but for pretty much ALL baked goods. Now, I admit. Sometimes I buy cheaper flours that are on sale, but in general– KA flour is my top choice. Why? Its high protein level: “At 11.7-percent protein, it tops ordinary American all-purpose flours by nearly 2 percentage points.” (from KA Flour site)

What does this mean? Baked goods rise higher and stay fresh longer.

A gluten free pie crust, you ask? I’ve never made one. Do you have a solid recipe for one?

bag of King Arthur all purpose flour with text overlay that says quality flour

Next up in my pie dough: salt. An obvious ingredient. Brings out the flavor. Pie crust shouldn’t be sweet.

Now, the final ingredient(s). They’re highly debatable. There are strong opinions out there for butter crust vs. shortening crust vs. lard crust. (I rarely use lard because it’s not as easy to come by for most people– though it makes a TASTY crust.) If you despise shortening, my pie crust recipe isn’t for you. If you want a crust recipe that stands the test of time, using good old shortening just as mom did– read on.

stick of butter and shortening in a measuring cup

Why I Use Shortening and Butter

Not all fats are created equal. Why shortening? With its high melting point, shortening aids in creating flakiness. Flaky, tender, melt-in-your mouth crust. Why butter? Butter imparts unparalleled, impeccable flavor. Nothing beats butter. I use both to create a crust that is full of tender flakes and rich in buttery flavor.

A Tasty Experiment: I recently performed an experiment. The tastiest kind, of course. I prepared an all-butter version to compare to my beloved butter/shortening crust. One thing was clear: the all-butter crust created a lighter textured crust with more defined flakes. This is due to the butter’s water content. As the crust bakes, the butter’s water converts to steam, creating light flakes. Get it? Because of all this butter, I found that the all-butter crust didn’t have a perfectly neat-edged crust. The all-butter crust tasted like pure butter. The butter/shortening crust (1) was just as flaky and tender in my opinion and (2) tasted buttery and like pie crust (think: diner style cherry pie). Both crusts were great. But the butter/shortening won in terms of texture, flavor, and appearance. This KA Flour blog post had similar results (great read if you’re a pie nerd like I am!).

Use Cold Fat in Pie Crust

Why the emphasis on temperature? Keeping your pie dough as cold as possible helps prevent the fat from melting. If the butter melts inside the dough before baking, you lose the flakiness. When the lumps of fat melt in the oven as the pie bakes, their steam helps to separate the crust into multiple flaky layers– as explained above. Warm fats will lend a hard, crunchy, greasy crust instead of a nice tender flaky crust.

I keep some of my butter in the freezer and transfer it to the refrigerator a few hours before beginning the crust. This way it is part frozen and very, very cold. For shortening? Just keep it in the refrigerator.

cubed butter

Pie Crust Tutorial

(Print-friendly recipe below!) Start with flour and salt in a large bowl. Add the cold fats. Use a pastry cutter (or two forks) to cut in the fats. Cut in the fats until the mixture resembles coarse meal. You should have some larger pieces of butter and shortening when you’re done.

2 images of pie dough in a bowl with a pastry cutter and coarse crumbs of fats and dry ingredients mixed together in a bowl

Next: ice water. Measure 1/2 cup (120ml) of water in a cup. Add ice. Stir it around. From that, measure 1/2 cup of water (since the ice has melted a bit!). Drizzle the cold water in, 1 Tablespoon (15ml) at a time, and stir with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon after every Tablespoon (15ml) added. Do not add any more water than you need to. Stop adding water when the dough begins to form large clumps. I always use 1/2 cup (120ml) of water.

If too much water is added, the pie dough will require more flour and thus become tough. If too little water is added, you’ll notice the dough is dry and crumbly when you try to roll it out and handle it.

shaggy pie dough mixture in a pink bowl with a spatula

Vodka in Pie Crust? Speaking of liquids. Have you heard of adding cold vodka to pie dough? It comes as no surprise to me that the geniuses at Cook’s Illustrated rave about it. They say that half of the pie dough’s moisture should come from vodka, which is 40% pure alcohol. This alcohol doesn’t promote gluten formation, helping the crust stay flaky and tender. Basically, it is a BLESSING to those of us who accidentally overwork pie dough. If you want to try using vodka– use 1/4 cup cold vodka and 1/4 cup ice cold water in the below recipe.

pie dough in a ball

Back to my pie crust recipe. After the ice water is added, let’s chill it. Here are the steps:

  • Transfer the dough to a floured work surface.
  • Using floured hands, fold the dough into itself until the flour is fully incorporated into the fats.
  • Form it into a ball. The dough should come together easily and should not feel overly sticky.
  • Cut the dough in half.
  • Flatten each half into 1-inch thick discs using your hands. Wrap each tightly in plastic wrap.
  • Refrigerate for at least 2 hours or up to 5 days. Or freeze!

3 images of discs of pie dough

Visible Specks and Swirls of Fat in Pie Dough

These specks and swirls of butter and shortening will help ensure a flaky pie dough. They are a GOOD thing!

2 discs of pie dough wrapped in plastic wrap

How to Roll Out Pie Crust

After the dough has chilled, start preparing your pie. Roll out the crust. Always use gentle force. You are not mad at the crust. When rolling dough out, always start from the center and work your way out in all directions, turning the dough with your hands as you go.

disc of pie dough with a wood rolling pin

Turn, roll, turn, roll.

hand holding pie dough

Roll the dough to fit a 9-inch pie dish. I typically roll the dough into a 12-inch circle so that there is enough crust to go up the edges of the dish and so I can trim and flute.

Do NOT be overwhelmed. I made sure to break everything down very easily, so a lot of the text in this recipe is me being as thorough as possible. Be sure to read through additional tips and troubleshooting below. Let me know about your pie adventures!

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pie crust strips on top of cherry pie with text overlay that says baking basics a series

Homemade Buttery Flaky Pie Crust

  • Author: Sally
  • Prep Time: 15 minutes
  • Cook Time: 0 minutes
  • Total Time: 2 hours, 15 minutes
  • Yield: 2 pie crusts
  • Category: Pie
  • Method: Baking
  • Cuisine: American


This recipe is enough for a double crust pie. If you only need 1 crust for your pie, cut this recipe in half OR freeze the other half per the make ahead tip instruction below.


  • 2 and 1/2 cups (313g) all-purpose flour (spoon & leveled)
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 6 Tablespoons (90g) unsalted butter, chilled and cubed
  • 3/4 cup (148g) vegetable shortening, chilled
  • 1/2 cup (120ml) ice water


  1. Mix the flour and salt together in a large bowl. Add the butter and shortening.
  2. Using a pastry cutter (the one I own) or two forks, cut the butter and shortening into the mixture until it resembles coarse meal (pea-sized bits with a few larger bits of fat is OK). A pastry cutter makes this step very easy and quick.
  3. Measure 1/2 cup (120ml) of water in a cup. Add ice. Stir it around. From that, measure 1/2 cup (120ml) of water– since the ice has melted a bit. Drizzle the cold water in, 1 Tablespoon (15ml) at a time, and stir with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon after every Tablespoon (15ml) added. Do not add any more water than you need to. Stop adding water when the dough begins to form large clumps. I always use about 1/2 cup (120ml) of water and a little more in dry winter months (up to 3/4 cup).
  4. Transfer the pie dough to a floured work surface. The dough should come together easily and should not feel overly sticky. Using floured hands, fold the dough into itself until the flour is fully incorporated into the fats. Form it into a ball. Divide dough in half. Flatten each half into 1-inch thick discs using your hands.
  5. Wrap each tightly in plastic wrap. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours (and up to 5 days).
  6. When rolling out the chilled pie dough discs to use in your pie, always use gentle force with your rolling pin. Start from the center of the disc and work your way out in all directions, turning the dough with your hands as you go. Visible specks of butter and fat in the dough are perfectly normal and expected!
  7. Proceed with the pie per your recipe’s instructions.


  1. Make Ahead & Freezing Instructions: Prepare the pie dough through step 4 and freeze the discs for up to 3 months. Thaw overnight in the refrigerator before using in your pie recipe.
  2. Salt: I use and strongly recommend regular table salt. If using kosher salt, use 1 and 1/2 teaspoons.

Keywords: butter pie crust, homemade pie crust

pie dough rolled into a circle with a wood rolling pin

Pie Crust Tips

  1. I prefer using a glass pie dish when I make pie. Why? Glass dishes conduct heat evenly, which allows the bottom of the crust to bake thoroughly. Also, you’ll be able to see when the sides and bottom of the crust has browned.
  2. Keep everything cold. Cold fats are key, as you now know. On a hot day, you can even measure and chill your flour in the refrigerator before beginning. When taking the pie crust out of the refrigerator to roll out and fill, make sure your pie filling is ready to go. If not, keep the pie crust in the refrigerator until it is.
  3. Preheat the oven so that the cold dough will go into a hot oven.
  4. If your pie recipe requires pre-baking– let’s say you’re making a pie with an especially wet filling– follow my how to blind bake pie crust guide and use pie weights. Without pie weights, the dough will puff up, then shrink. Pie weights are made from metal or ceramic beads and work to weigh down the crust to prevent the puffing/shrinking. Dried beans can also be used! Whichever you choose, be sure to line the crust with parchment, then fill the empty pie crust with the weights all the way to the top of the pie dish rim prior to baking. More on pie weights.
  5. Use a pie crust shield to keep the crust edge covered, which protects it from browning too quickly or worse– burning. Use an adjustable silicone pie crust shield that you can fit to the size of your delicate pie crust. Metal can break the crust. Alternatively, you can cover the pie with a piece of aluminum foil. Cut a large circle in the center of the square so the center of the pie is exposed.
  6. If your pie recipe requires a pre-baked pie shell, such as banana cream pie, french silk pie, or a tart, here is what to do: prepare the pie crust through step 6. Roll out the chilled pie dough into a 12-inch circle, carefully place the dough into a 9-inch pie dish. Tuck it in with your fingers, making sure it is smooth, then trim and flute the edges. Prick the bottom of the crust all over with a fork, then line the crust with parchment paper and fill with pie weights. Bake at 375°F (190°C) until it begins to color around the edges. (15-20 minutes)

Troubleshooting Pie Crust

  • Prevent a crumbly pie dough. Make sure you use enough water when preparing your pie dough. Too little water will make your dough unworkable. Read more about water above.
  • Prevent a tough baked pie crust. Tough crusts are the result of not enough fat in the crust, as well as overworking the dough. Use the recipe above (plenty of fat) and don’t work the dough too much.
  • Prevent a burnt crust with a pie shield! See above.

Pie Recipes! Recipes to try using this crust: peach pie (in my cookbook!), cherry piechicken pot pie, pumpkin pie, quichebaked apples, salted pecan pie tarts, apple crumble pieblueberry peach pie, homemade pop-tarts!, and salted caramel apple pie.


  1. Hi Sally,
    I have just started learning to bake in the last month. I really appreciate your recipes and instructions! I have never made pie dough until I tried this one. My dough came out delicate and soft so it was very difficult to roll and there was no way it could have been crimped around the edges. Because I’ve never made pie crust, I don’t know what I did wrong. What are your thoughts?

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Krisi! We’re happy to help troubleshoot. When the dough is overly soft, flour will help. Whenever we accidentally over-work the fats into the dough (creating a softer, wetter dough) and/or add too much water, using enough flour during the rolling process is always a nice saving grace. It can be easy to overwork the fats into the dough especially in the summer months, so feel free to put your dough mixture into the refrigerator at any time if you find it becoming too soft to handle. Hope this helps for next time!

  2. I don’t have Crisco on hand but I did pick up lard from the butcher shop. Can I just substitute lard for shortening?

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Absolutely — lard should work in place of the shortening without any other changes.

  3. Considering just using all butter for crust and not get shortening?? It will still be ok right? (insert worried face emoji)

    1. You can use butter as a substitute, but butter will melt a lot faster in the oven, and make it not as flaky as if you used shortening and butter. But it will still work. Its a 1:1 ratio.

  4. just about to try your recipe. is sea salt ok?

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Megan, we use and recommend table salt.

  5. julie hanning says:

    I’m about to try this. If I do before how early do I remove the crust from the fridge before rolling. I tried another recipe once and when I brought the ball out to roll it was very hard.

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Julie, we take the crust out just a few minutes before rolling. Rolling warms it up significantly, so we don’t want to wait too long and have super soft dough to roll. If it’s too hard right out of the refrigerator, let is sit for a few minutes and then give it another go. Let us know how you like this recipe!

  6. Jean Whitehead says:

    I’m trying this pie crust tonight. Wish me luck. Not the greatest crust maker. I bought salted butter instead of unsalted. Can I still make pie crust. I hope so.

    1. Trina @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Jean, if using salted butter we would use about 1/2 teaspoon of salt instead of 1 teaspoon. Good luck and happy baking!

  7. Jean Whitehead says:

    Your recipe for pie crust says 1-1/4 of salt. You said 1/2 teaspoonful of salt above if using salted butter. Correct. The only other question is that your video and recipe have different temperatures and cooking time is different. Do I go by your video. Help lol

    1. Trina @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Jean, stick with the written recipe!

  8. Jean Whitehead says:

    I have my dough in the fridge for the morning. It looked great. I only added 6 tablespoons of cold water because for some reason I was thinking of the butter measurement and you said 1/2 cup. Can I fix it. You said if you don’t add enough water it can be crumbly. Help!

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Jean, with only 6 tablespoons of water, it may be a bit dry and crumbly (there are 8 tablespoons in half a cup). Roll out very slowly and gently. If it’s cracking, moisten your fingertips with water and meld the dough back together as best you can. Hopefully that helps!

  9. Can I use a food processor to mix the dough?

    1. Stephanie @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Jennifer, While you could use a food processor to make this pie crust, it’s strongly recommend to use a pastry cutter, or even two forks, to avoid over-mixing. Food processors are quick to over-work pie dough.

  10. Hi. Sally! What if I don’t have vegetable shortening? What can I substitute with?

    1. Michelle @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Yaya, if you don’t have vegetable shortening available, we recommend using our all-butter pie crust instead!

  11. Can I use your pie crust recipe for butter tarts???

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Lin, we can’t see why not! Feel free to use this crust recipe with a butter tarts recipe that you enjoy.

  12. Hi Sally! I followed your recipe perfectly but my pie crust shrank when baked. Is this because I didn’t have enough pie weights to fill the shell?? I only had enough to cover the bottom. Love your videos by the way, they help to understand everything!!

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Sheila, it sounds like you could use more pie weights as you mention. Be sure to line the crust with parchment, then fill the empty pie crust with the weights all the way to the top of the pie dish rim prior to baking to prevent excess shrinking. Dried beans also work if you don’t have enough pie weights. An easy fix for next time! Thanks so much for giving this recipe a try.

  13. Hi Sally,
    I’m trying your recipe for the first time. I halved it for 1 crust but I think I added too much water. How can I fix this?

    1. Hi Donna, you can try to carefully and gently work in more flour using your hands. How did it turn out?

  14. Hi Sally! I love baking pies now, thanks to you! Question – how do i convert this pie crust recipe to make multiple 6 inch pies instead of 9 inch pies?

    1. Hi Rose, it depends how many 6 inch pies you are baking. You can always make 2-3 batches of this dough so you have plenty and then freeze any leftovers to use at another time.

      1. Would this recipe (good for 2 9inch pies) be enough to make 3 6inch pies? 🙂

  15. When making a pie with a very juicy fruit, like fresh peaches, how can I stop the bottom crust from being soggy?

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Judy, we’ve never had a particularly soggy bottom crust with this recipe. You might find it helpful to par-bake the crust when making very juicy pies — most recipes will indicate this step, if necessary.

  16. First time ever baking a pie, really appreciate your step by step instructions. Are pie weights necessary for baking pies?

    1. Hi Shirleen, only if you are par baking (blind baking) the pie crust. If you’re curious about that, here is my page about par-baking pie crust.

  17. I plan on using this crust for a party tomorrow, and am wondering if substituting some of the water for vodka would help make a flakier crust?

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      You sure can! See the subsection titled “Vodka in Pie Crust?” — use 1/4 cup cold vodka and 1/4 cup ice cold water in the recipe.

  18. Hi, thanks for this awesome recipe and detailed instructions. I was wondering if we can use whole wheat flour for the crust? Or replace half of all purpose flower with whole wheat flour?

    1. Trina @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Vicki, We strongly recommend all-purpose flour in this pie crust. You can try to search for a whole wheat pie crust recipe alternative. It won’t be a 1:1 switch in our recipe. Let us know if you find a good one!

  19. I am a newly retired teacher and am beginning all the things I love to do but never had time before. I just spent my birthday money on all the equipment I need to bake a pie (thanks for al the great suggestions). While I wait for the Amazon truck to arrive, do you have a lemon meringue pie recipe that you love? My father-in-law loves them and I want to perfect one for Thanksgiving. Thank you for all the great suggestions, BTW. I have been afraid of pie crust my entire life and am ready to dive in thanks to you!!!

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Carrie, we sure do. Here is our lemon meringue pie recipe. We hope you and your father-in-law enjoy it, and happy baking!

  20. Homerun! This recipe yields a fantastic pie crust. I can’t even explain how good it is. I blind baked mine, then used a John Folse recipe called Honey Pecan Pie. I’m a Cajun and so is Chef Folse! He cooks nothing but Cajun and Creole and boy is it mmm mmm good! With the crust snd the filling, I am in heaven. I can’t wait to share this with my friends and family. Thank you Sally for reaching and making it easy and fun!!! Keep it up! Love it!!

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Thank you so much for sharing your kind feedback, Mrs. Roux!

  21. I spooned and measured the flour in measuring cups (2 1/2 cups), but then put it on the scale and it weighed more than 313g. I took out some flour to make it 313g exact. I weighed my fats exact as well and felt my dough was way too soft and very difficult to roll out. It stuck to everything and ripped easily. Do you think I needed that extra flour I took out, or did I overwork the fats?

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Mary, we’re happy to help. It could be either that you mention. Overworking the fats will create a soft dough — if you find it becoming too soft as you work, you can stick the mixture back in the refrigerator for a bit to help cool it, or try adding a tablespoon of additional flour at a time to help it come together. Hope this helps for next time!

  22. I am having 17 people in for Thanksgiving. I want to bake three chocolate pies, a lemon meringue pie and a pecan pie. My son is baking the pumpkin pies. How many of these can I bake ahead using your recipes? My oven will be in use for the turkey (20 pound ) on Thanksgiving Day.
    Thank you so much for all your help and wonderful recipes!
    Linda R

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Linda, all of our recipes have make ahead instructions in their recipe notes. It would be best to look at each recipe and see what is suggested for each. Such a great plan to get a head start on those Thanksgiving pies!

  23. This is so inspirational! It makes me just want to make ALL THE THINGS! What do you do with all the food you make? I bake more than my family can eat – do you have any suggestions for what to do with all the food? Really relating to the “addiction” part of your name LOL

    1. Trina @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Shelby! We share with everyone and anyone who will take them! We share mostly everything that doesn’t fit in the freezer (and that’s still edible!).

  24. This pie crust is great, and the deep dish apple pie is my husbands favorite! I made the pie crust yesterday and happened to notice that the amount of salt is 1 teaspoon but your video says 1 1/4 teaspoons. Which is best? Thanks for all the amazing recipes!!!

    1. Trina @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Carrie, stick with 1 tsp. So glad you love it!

  25. Tracy L Hamilton says:

    Fantastic recipe. I appreciate this is an all butter recipe! Came out delicious and flaky!

  26. My dad reckons that this is the best pie crust I’ve ever made.

  27. (Edited to correct)
    I’ve followed the recipe for the fourth time, even using different flours & weighing out the ingredients and find that the liquid amount stated is about double what I need.
    There is a absolutely NO way the full amount can be used without adding another 1-1.5 c. flour here in the Toronto area.
    From some of the comments it sounds as if others are experiencing wet doughs also.
    Figured I’d add this here: I highly suggest adding the water VERY slowly and stopping when it JUST sticks together.
    (Thanks for all your creativity & hard work!)

  28. I have used the pie crust multiple times and I love it. I wanted to make small individual pies this time if I roll an cut out circles how many times can I rework the dough to make more circles before it will result in a tough pastry?

    1. Lexi @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Megan, there’s no set number of times, but we imagine after a few it will get harder to work with. Feel free to put the dough back in the refrigerator between rolls in order to keep it cold.

  29. Hello!
    I have problems with oozing butter/lard while blind baking. It happens almost every time. I use butter and leaf lard for pie crusts.

    1. Trina @ Sally's Baking Addiction says:

      Hi Cathey! Some melting is normal during baking. Make sure to keep your pie dough very cold before baking and that your pieces of fat aren’t too large in the crust – both of these things should help!

  30. This pie crust was so easy to put together and came out beautifully. If I am par-baking, how do I know it’s time to come out? I am baking on an aluminum pan with parchment paper and pie weights but when I pull off the parchment paper, it’s sticking to the dough. Does that mean it should be kept in for longer? I feel like even with the given time, the dough in the center is still raw, even after baking again with the pie filling.

    1. Hi Kaitlen, it depends on the pie recipe you are following. Have you seen my page all about par-baking pie crust? Sometimes recipes instruct you to full par-bake pie crust or partially par-bake pie crust. When I partially par-bake pie crust, I usually remove the weights and bake it for a few extra minutes to help set the dough that was covered with the weights. If, as you remove the parchment/weights, the dough is sticking– try to use your hands or a spatula to carefully separate the dough from the parchment.

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