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Today I’m going to teach you everything you need to know about making the perfect buttery flaky pie crust. This is the one and only pie crust recipe I use. It’s been passed down through generations. Stands the test of time. Old-fashioned, yet never out of style. Wins my heart every single time (especially as salted caramel apple pie!).

salted caramel apple pie

There is nothing more satisfying than making a pie completely from scratch. From the golden crust to the juicy filling and everything in between. Pies are tasty for one reason: they’re time consuming. This shouldn’t scare you! It should intrigue you. Because if you can bake an exceptional homemade pie, congratulations. You’re a talented baker.

Let me help you get there.

As the base holding all of the pie’s contents, pie crust’s flavor is in every single bite. Start with a solid crust and you’re that much closer to pie-fection. !! Today we’re going to explore my pie crust recipe, preparation tips, how-to’s, and troubleshooting.

Pie Crust Ingredients

This crust is made with a few simple ingredients: flour, salt, cold water, and fat.

Start with quality flour. Did you know that not all all-purpose flours are created the same? King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour (adoring fan girl. they do not know I exist.) is my go-to for not only pie crust, but for pretty much ALL baked goods. Now, I admit. Sometimes I buy cheaper flours that are on sale, but in general– KA flour is my top choice. Why? Its high protein level: “At 11.7-percent protein, it tops ordinary American all-purpose flours by nearly 2 percentage points.” (from KA Flour site)

What does this mean? Baked goods rise higher and stay fresh longer.

A gluten free pie crust, you ask? I’ve never made one. Do you have a solid recipe for one?

bag of King Arthur all purpose flour with text overlay that says quality flour

Next up in my pie dough: salt. An obvious ingredient. Brings out the flavor. Pie crust shouldn’t be sweet.

Now, the final ingredient(s). They’re highly debatable. There are strong opinions out there for butter crust vs. shortening crust vs. lard crust. (I rarely use lard because it’s not as easy to come by for most people– though it makes a TASTY crust.) If you despise shortening, my pie crust recipe isn’t for you. If you want a crust recipe that stands the test of time, using good old shortening– read on.

stick of butter and shortening in a measuring cup

Why I Use Shortening and Butter

Not all fats are created equal. I use a mix of shortening and butter because they work together to make the BEST crust. Butter adds flavor and flakiness, while shortening helps the dough stay pliable which is helpful when you’re rolling and shaping it. Plus, its high melting point is advantageous because it helps the crust stay tender while still maintaining shape.

A Tasty Experiment: I recently performed an experiment. The tastiest kind, of course. I prepared an all-butter version to compare to my beloved butter/shortening crust. One thing was clear: the all-butter crust created a lighter textured crust with more defined flakes. This is due to the butter’s water content. As the crust bakes, the butter’s water converts to steam, creating light flakes. Get it? Because of all this butter, I found that the all-butter crust didn’t have a perfectly neat-edged crust. The all-butter crust tasted like pure butter. The butter/shortening crust (1) was just as flaky and tender in my opinion and (2) tasted buttery and like pie crust (think: diner style cherry pie). Both crusts were great. But the butter/shortening won in terms of texture, flavor, and appearance. This KA Flour blog post had similar results (great read!).

Use Cold Fat in Pie Crust

Why the emphasis on temperature? Keeping your pie dough as cold as possible helps prevent the fat from melting. If the butter melts inside the dough before baking, you lose the flakiness. When the lumps of fat melt in the oven as the pie bakes, their steam helps to separate the crust into multiple flaky layers– as explained above. Warm fats will lend a hard, crunchy, greasy crust instead of a nice tender flaky crust.

I keep some of my butter in the freezer and transfer it to the refrigerator a few hours before beginning the crust. This way it is part frozen and very, very cold. For shortening? Just keep it in the refrigerator.

cubed butter

Pie Crust Tutorial

(Print-friendly recipe below!) Start with flour and salt in a large bowl. Add the cold fats. Use a pastry cutter (or two forks) to cut in the fats. Cut in the fats until the mixture resembles coarse meal. You should have some larger pieces of butter and shortening when you’re done.

2 images of pie dough in a bowl with a pastry cutter and coarse crumbs of fats and dry ingredients mixed together in a bowl

Next: ice water. Measure 1/2 cup (120ml) of water in a cup. Add ice. Stir it around. From that, measure 1/2 cup of water (since the ice has melted a bit). Drizzle the cold water in, 1 Tablespoon (15ml) at a time, and stir with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon after every Tablespoon (15ml) added. Do not add any more water than you need to. Stop adding water when the dough begins to form large clumps. I always use 1/2 cup (120ml) of water.

If too much water is added, the pie dough will require more flour and become tough. If too little water is added, you’ll notice the dough is dry and crumbly when you try to roll it out and handle it.

shaggy pie dough mixture in a pink bowl with a spatula

Vodka in Pie Crust? Speaking of liquids. Have you heard of adding cold vodka to pie dough? It comes as no surprise to me that the geniuses at Cook’s Illustrated rave about it. They say that half of the pie dough’s moisture should come from vodka, which is 40% pure alcohol. This alcohol doesn’t promote gluten formation, helping the crust stay flaky and tender. Basically, it is a BLESSING to those of us who accidentally overwork pie dough. If you want to try using vodka– use 1/4 cup cold vodka and 1/4 cup ice cold water in the below recipe.

pie dough in a ball

After the ice water is added, let’s chill it. Here are the steps:

  • Transfer the dough to a floured work surface.
  • Using floured hands, fold the dough into itself until the flour is fully incorporated into the fats.
  • Form it into a ball. The dough should come together easily and should not feel overly sticky.
  • Cut the dough in half.
  • Flatten each half into 1-inch thick discs using your hands. Wrap each tightly in plastic wrap.
  • Refrigerate for at least 2 hours or up to 5 days. Or freeze it.
3 images of discs of pie dough

Visible Specks and Swirls of Fat in Pie Dough

These specks and swirls of butter and shortening will help ensure a flaky pie dough. They are a GOOD thing!

2 discs of pie dough wrapped in plastic wrap

How to Roll Out Pie Crust

After the dough has chilled, start preparing your pie. Roll out the crust. Always use gentle force. You are not mad at the crust. When rolling dough out, always start from the center and work your way out in all directions, turning the dough with your hands as you go.

disc of pie dough with a wood rolling pin

Turn, roll, turn, roll.

hand holding pie dough

Roll the dough to fit a 9-inch pie dish. I typically roll the dough into a 12-inch circle so that there is enough crust to go up the edges of the dish and so I can trim and flute.

Do NOT be overwhelmed. I made sure to break everything down as detailed as possible. Be sure to read through additional tips and troubleshooting below. Let me know about your pie adventures!

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pie crust strips on top of cherry pie with text overlay that says baking basics a series

Homemade Buttery Flaky Pie Crust

  • Author: Sally
  • Prep Time: 15 minutes
  • Cook Time: 0 minutes
  • Total Time: 2 hours, 15 minutes
  • Yield: 2 pie crusts 1x
  • Category: Pie
  • Method: Baking
  • Cuisine: American


This recipe is enough for a double crust pie. If you only need 1 crust for your pie, cut this recipe in half OR freeze the other half per the make ahead tip instruction below.


  • 2 and 1/2 cups (313g) all-purpose flour (spoon & leveled), plus more as needed for shaping and rolling
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 6 Tablespoons (90g) unsalted butter, chilled and cubed
  • 2/3 cup (130g) vegetable shortening, chilled
  • 1/2 cup (120ml) ice water


  1. Mix the flour and salt together in a large bowl. Add the butter and shortening.
  2. Using a pastry cutter (the one I own) or two forks, cut the butter and shortening into the mixture until it resembles coarse meal (pea-sized bits with a few larger bits of fat is OK). A pastry cutter makes this step very easy and quick.
  3. Measure 1/2 cup (120ml) of water in a cup. Add ice. Stir it around. From that, measure 1/2 cup (120ml) water since the ice has melted a bit. Drizzle the cold water in, 1 Tablespoon (15ml) at a time, and stir with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon after every Tablespoon (15ml) added. Stop adding water when the dough begins to form large clumps. I always use about 1/2 cup (120ml) of water and a little more in dry winter months (up to 3/4 cup). Do not add any more water than you need.
  4. Transfer the pie dough to a floured work surface. The dough should come together easily and should not feel overly sticky. Using floured hands, fold the dough into itself until the flour is fully incorporated into the fats. Form it into a ball. Cut dough in half. Flatten each half into 1-inch thick discs using your hands.
  5. Wrap each tightly in plastic wrap. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours and up to 5 days.
  6. When rolling out the chilled pie dough discs to use in your pie, always use gentle force with your rolling pin. Start from the center of the disc and work your way out in all directions, turning the dough with your hands as you go. Visible specks of butter and fat in the dough are perfectly normal and expected!
  7. Proceed with the pie per your recipe’s instructions.


  1. Make Ahead & Freezing Instructions: Prepare the pie dough through step 4 and freeze the discs for up to 3 months. Thaw overnight in the refrigerator before using in your pie recipe.
  2. Shortening: (update in 2021) I use between 2/3 and 3/4 cup of cold shortening in this dough. Lately, I find 2/3 cup (which is 10 Tbsp + 2 teaspoons or about 130g) works best.
  3. Salt: Use regular table salt. If using kosher salt, use 1 and 1/4 teaspoons.

Keywords: butter pie crust, homemade pie crust

pie dough rolled into a circle with a wood rolling pin

Pie Crust Tips

  1. I prefer using a glass pie dish when I make pie. Why? Glass dishes conduct heat evenly, which allows the bottom of the crust to bake thoroughly. Also, you’ll be able to see when the sides and bottom of the crust has browned.
  2. The refrigerator is pie dough’s best friend. Keep everything cold. On a hot day, you can even measure and chill your flour in the refrigerator before beginning. When taking the pie crust out of the refrigerator to roll out and fill, make sure your pie filling is ready to go. If not, keep the pie crust in the refrigerator until it is.
  3. Preheat the oven so that the cold dough will go into a hot oven.
  4. If your pie recipe requires pre-baking– let’s say you’re making a pie with an especially wet filling– follow my how to blind bake pie crust guide and use pie weights. Without pie weights, the dough will puff up, then shrink. Pie weights are made from metal or ceramic beads and work to weigh down the crust to prevent the puffing/shrinking. Dried beans can also be used! Whichever you choose, be sure to line the crust with parchment, then fill the empty pie crust with the weights all the way to the top of the pie dish rim prior to baking.
  5. Use a pie crust shield to keep the crust edge covered, which protects it from browning too quickly or worse– burning. Use an adjustable silicone pie crust shield that you can fit to the size of your delicate pie crust. Metal can break the crust. Alternatively, you can cover the pie with a piece of aluminum foil. Cut a large circle in the center of the square so the center of the pie is exposed.
  6. If your pie recipe requires a pre-baked pie shell, such as banana cream pie, french silk pie, or a tart, here is what to do: prepare the pie crust through step 6. Roll out the chilled pie dough into a 12-inch circle, carefully place the dough into a 9-inch pie dish. Tuck it in with your fingers, making sure it is smooth, then trim and flute the edges. Prick the bottom of the crust all over with a fork, then line the crust with parchment paper and fill with pie weights. Bake at 375°F (190°C) until it begins to color around the edges. (15-20 minutes)

Troubleshooting Pie Crust

  • To prevent a crumbly cracking pie dough, make sure you use enough water when preparing your pie dough. Too little water will make your dough unworkable. Read more about water above.
  • Prevent a tough baked pie crust. Tough crusts are the result of not enough fat in the crust, as well as overworking the dough. Use the recipe above (plenty of fat) and don’t work the dough too much.
  • Prevent a burnt crust with a pie shield. See above.

Pie Recipes! Recipes to try using this crust: cherry pie, peach piechicken pot pie, peach pie, pumpkin pie, quichepecan pie, blueberry pie, apple crumble piehomemade pop-tarts, and salted caramel apple pie.

Reader Questions and Reviews

  1. I use this pie crust recipe and it is wonderful, though I find that when I am making a cream pie that requires refrigeration, the cold crust loses some of the flakiness that it would have had originally at room temperature. Would using all butter eliminate this or is that just how it goes with cold pie crust?

    1. Hi Brenda, when the pie crust is too warm, the butter begins melting even before the pie goes in the oven. This means you lose all the flakiness and structure. I recommend keeping the pie dough on the thicker side. If a thicker crust means using 1.5 crusts for the bottom of 1 pie, do it! (This pie crust recipe yields 2 crusts, so it’s enough for using 1.5 crusts. Save extras in the freezer.) You can actually use all butter if you wish. Here is our post on an all butter pie crust.

      1. it is after the pie is baked and refrigerated that I find that I am losing the flakiness. Would that be any different with the all butter crust?

  2. Can this pie crust recipe be made in a food processor?

    1. Hi Cheryl, While you could use a food processor to make this pie crust, it’s strongly recommend to use a pastry cutter, or even two forks, to avoid over-mixing. Food processors are quick to over-work pie dough.

    2. Yes. I use my food processor when making pie dough. It quick & easy

  3. My local grocery does stock lard. Would I replace the shortening with lard in this recipe, or should I use a different recipe with all lard?

    1. Hi Tina, Lard should work in place of the shortening without any other changes. Keep the butter. Enjoy!

      1. Do you recommend measuring out the shortening and then chilling it? I usually don’t keep my shortening in the fridge. Thanks for the tip!

      2. Hi Lila, yes, you can measure it and then place it in the refrigerator if you’d like. Just make sure it has plenty of time to chill before using it in the recipe!

  4. I adore this recipe! I have used it every week since I discovered it!! One variation I have made is that I add certain alcohols in place of some of the water depending on the filling… I used bourbon with my pecan pie, Jameson’s Orange whiskey with a rhubarb/orange pie and I plan to use peach schnapps when I try your peach pie this weekend. I used half alcohol and half water.

    1. Great idea! Thank you. I am about to make a Peach Pie. I think I will put a bit of peach Crown Royal in the crust.

  5. The only pie crust recipe I ever use. This recipe works great for regular pies and pie pockets, everyone who’s ever had this loves it. There are so few ingredients that it’s easy to make substitutions for dietary restrictions when I’m baking for someone else, and I’ve made this gluten free and vegan and it was wonderful both times.

  6. Hi Sally
    Is there any thing I can use insted of shortnig

  7. Hello! I keep running into an issue with adding water. After I mix in the butter and shortening? My dough already forms into a large clump. Adding more than a couple tablespoons makes my dough lose its form. What am I doing wrong?

    1. The entire mixture is likely too warm, so the butter/fat is almost melting into the flour instead of staying as separate flour-coated crumbles. I recommend chilling the flour + salt mixture in the freezer for 20 minutes, then cutting in the fats, refrigerating or freezing that for 20 minutes and then adding the ice cold water. You’ll notice a BIG difference. This usually happens to me when making pie dough in the warm summer months, so I know chilling everything works!

  8. For the shortening is it okay to use something out of a jar, such as crisco, or will sticks of shortening work better?

  9. This dough came out much softer and more pliable than I expected. When I lifted it into the pie plate, it broke apart. My butter was cold. Don’t know if I used too much water or if my vegetable oil wasn’t cold enough. Any thoughts?

    1. Hi Naomi, We’re happy to help troubleshoot. When the dough is overly soft, flour will help. Whenever we accidentally over-work the fats into the dough (creating a softer, wetter dough) and/or add too much water, using enough flour during the rolling process is always a nice saving grace. It can be easy to overwork the fats into the dough especially in the summer months, so feel free to put your dough mixture into the refrigerator at any time if you find it becoming too soft to handle. Hope this helps for next time!

  10. I used this recipe for the quiche. My dough fell apart (especially at the edges) when I rolled it out.. I uploaded pictures on to the Facebook page, and most said the dough is was too dry and my butter pieces were too large / not worked in enough. If there may be reasons beyond those two things, I would welcome y’alls input. Many suggested using a food processor next time, but I know it’s easy to overwork the dough when going that route.

    1. Hi Amanda! The dough being a dit dry is the most likely culprit – you can always dip your fingers in a bit of water to help bring the edges together as you roll it out. But don’t be afraid to add a little more water next time to bring the dough together!

  11. I struggled with pie dough for years until I came across this recipe. Works great – nice and flaky and the shortening seems to prevent it from getting too hard, which was a problem for me with an all butter crust.

  12. Hey!! I am new to baking pies! Today I tried a chicken pot pie. I made sure to stop adding water when the clumps formed. I put it in the fridge for two days. Today I took it out it wanted to crumble when I tried to roll it out. It just fell apart. Once it got slightly warmer it was just tearing. What am I doing wrong

    1. Hi Morgan! Sounds like your dough may just be dry. Try adding more water next time. You can use some water to bring the dough together while rolling out or incorporate with your hands for this batch.

  13. Can this be made in a KitchenAid stand mixer ? Would there be any adjustments?

    1. Hi Roy, we don’t usually recommend a mixer for pie dough because it can’t cut cold fats into the dry ingredients quite like a pastry cutter or food processor. If you aren’t using a pastry cutter/doing it by hand, we really do recommend a food processor.

  14. Love the taste of this crust BUT I always come up short for enough dough. If I roll it out large enough it is too thin to transfer to the pan without tearing. I’m using 9″ deep dish pans. Is the recipe for deep dish pans? Can I increase ingredients proportionately? Help

    1. Hi Jim, We often use this same crust in deep dish pans. However, you could always make 1.5x the recipe to ensure you have enough. Hope this helps!

  15. Would this recipe work well for steak and potato hand pies?

    1. Hi Bonnie, we can’t see why not! We love using it for savory pies like chicken pot pie. Let us know how you like it!

  16. I’m trying to decide which pie crust recipe to try first. I’m curious why the all butter recipe calls for 2 tsp sugar and this one has no sugar?

    1. Hi Judy, While it’s not needed in this recipe, for the all butter crust we find the small addition improves the crust’s flavor and enhances browning. The sugar crystals also help break down the hard pieces of butter. It’s not enough sugar to make it taste sweet!

  17. I love this pie crust! How would you adjust the ingredients to make 2 crusts for a 10 inch pie?

    1. Hi Beth! Instead of scaling up the recipe (which may not work very well), I would actually make 2 separate batches of this pie dough. You will have 4 pie dough discs. Freeze one of them to use at a different time and use 3 of them. Cut the 3rd one in half and combine it with the 1st and 2nd to make 2 large discs. Then use those for your double crust 10-inch pie. I hope this makes sense!

      1. Thanks! That sounds perfect. The extra crust can be used to make your quiche recipe which I also love.

  18. I am known for my pie crusts in our neighborhood and family. I’ve been using a basic Betty Crocker recipe for years. But since I found your web site and signed up for your emails, I have found some great new recipes (Strawberry Cream Cheese Pie). I decided to try your buttery flaky pie crust recipe that uses butter as well as the shortening I had been using. Your recipe is so good, I am an convert to your recipe. To think I’ve been doing this wrong all these years. Thanks so much for this pie crust recipe!

    1. So happy to read this, Ralph! Thank you so much for giving our recipe a try.

    1. Hi Dhyanna, we typically use Crisco vegetable shortening (not sponsored, just what we usually reach for!), but you can use any brand of vegetable shortening that you prefer.

  19. Thanks for responding, Stephanie. I’m so excited! I made my very first pie crust (I’m 67 years old!) I have always been intimidated by the thought of making my own crust but after reading the label on the store bought refrigerated version with all the preservatives I was determined to try it. I made it 2 days ago, following Sally’s directions exactly. The dough came together with a little less than 1/2 cup of ice water. I put half in the freezer and the other half in the fridge until I had time to make the pumpkin pie. When I got it out to roll it it seemed too wet! After my initial shock and disappointment I decided to proceed and see if it would work. I tried to hurry since I knew it was getting warmer. I managed to roll it out (sprinkling flour on the counter) and get it in the pie dish but it was getting soggy. I decided to put it in the freezer while I mixed up the filling which made it easier to flute when I removed it. It’s in the oven now so…fingers crossed! I guess I must have added too much ice water somehow even though I added it 1 T at a time just like the directions say. I’ll let you know how it turns out. Thanks for your help.

  20. Best pie crust I have ever made! I was skeptical with shortening being the main fat, but it tastes sooooo buttery! Wow! I absolutely love the texture an taste of this crust.

    I have made this with both just the icee water and some where I add vodka for half the liquid. Highly recommend using vodka for half the cold liquid as it really seems to helps the dough hold together better and was very forgiving with overworking it on occasion.

  21. The pie crust turned out fantastic! It tasted amazing – I used it with the apple hand pies.

  22. I made this recipe and it was just great! It was flaky and crispy. Thanks a lot for the detailed description.

  23. This is my first time trying to make a pie! Just wondering if I can prep an apple filling the night before as well? Do I leave the apple mixture uncooked in the fridge?


    1. Hi Mary Ana, If you’re using our apple pie recipe, it’s fine to leave the prepared mixture in the fridge overnight. We hope your first pie turns out great!

  24. Hi, Sally and team! This is the best pie crust ever. Can I use cake or bread flour as a substitute for this recipe? I’m about 80 grams short of all-purpose flour and I need to make this pie dough tonight. Thanks in advance!

    1. Hi Charla, We don’t recommend bread flour for pie crust. It would yield a very chewy texture, which is perfect for bread, bagels, etc. but not for a tender, flaky crust. It’s best to stick to all-purpose flour here.