Homemade Buttery Flaky Pie Crust

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Today I’m going to teach you everything you need to know about making the perfect buttery flaky pie crust. This is the one and only pie crust recipe I use. It’s been passed down through generations. Stands the test of time. Old-fashioned, yet never out of style. Wins my heart every single time.

Salted caramel apple pie on sallysbakingaddiction.com

There is nothing more satisfying than making a pie completely from scratch. From the golden crust to the juicy filling and everything in between. Pies are so damn tasty for one reason: they’re time consuming. This shouldn’t scare you! It should intrigue you. Because if you can bake an exceptional homemade pie, congratulations. You’re a talented baker.

Let me help you get there.

As the base holding all of the pie’s contents, pie crust’s flavor is in every single bite. Start with a solid crust and you’re that much closer to pie-fection. !! Today we’re going to explore my pie crust recipe, preparation tips, how-to’s, and troubleshooting.

Pie Crust Ingredients

This crust is made with a few simple ingredients: flour, salt, cold water, and fat.

Start with quality flour. Did you know that not all all-purpose flours are created the same? King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour (adoring fan girl. they do not know I exist.) is my go-to for not only pie crust, but for pretty much ALL baked goods. Now, I admit. Sometimes I buy cheaper flours that are on sale, but in general– KA flour is my top choice. Why? Its high protein level: “At 11.7-percent protein, it tops ordinary American all-purpose flours by nearly 2 percentage points.” (from KA Flour site)

What does this mean? Baked goods rise higher and stay fresh longer.

A gluten free pie crust, you ask? I’ve never made one. Do you have a solid recipe for one?

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Next up in my pie dough: salt. An obvious ingredient. Brings out the flavor. Pie crust shouldn’t be sweet.

Now, the final ingredient(s). They’re highly debatable. There are strong opinions out there for butter crust vs. shortening crust vs. lard crust. (I rarely use lard because it’s not as easy to come by for most people– though it makes a TASTY crust.) If you despise shortening, my pie crust recipe isn’t for you. If you want a crust recipe that stands the test of time, using good old shortening just as mom did– read on.

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Why I Use Shortening and Butter

Not all fats are created equal. Why shortening? With its high melting point, shortening aids in creating flakiness. Flaky, tender, melt-in-your mouth crust. Why butter? Butter imparts unparalleled, impeccable flavor. Nothing beats butter. I use both to create a crust that is full of tender flakes and rich in buttery flavor.

A Tasty Experiment: I recently performed an experiment. The tastiest kind, of course. I prepared an all-butter version to compare to my beloved butter/shortening crust. One thing was clear: the all-butter crust created a lighter textured crust with more defined flakes. This is due to the butter’s water content. As the crust bakes, the butter’s water converts to steam, creating light flakes. Get it? Because of all this butter, I found that the all-butter crust didn’t have a perfectly neat-edged crust. The all-butter crust tasted like pure butter. The butter/shortening crust (1) was just as flaky and tender in my opinion and (2) tasted buttery and like pie crust (think: diner style cherry pie). Both crusts were great. But the butter/shortening won in terms of texture, flavor, and appearance. This KA Flour blog post had similar results (great read if you’re a pie nerd like I am!).

Use Cold Fat in Pie Crust

Why the emphasis on temperature? Keeping your pie dough as cold as possible helps prevent the fat from melting. If the butter melts inside the dough before baking, you lose the flakiness. When the lumps of fat melt in the oven as the pie bakes, their steam helps to separate the crust into multiple flaky layers– as explained above. Warm fats will lend a hard, crunchy, greasy crust instead of a nice tender flaky crust.

I keep some of my butter in the freezer and transfer it to the refrigerator a few hours before beginning the crust. This way it is part frozen and very, very cold. For shortening? Just keep it in the refrigerator.

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Pie Crust Tutorial

(Print-friendly recipe below!) Start with flour and salt in a large bowl. Add the cold fats. Use a pastry cutter (or two forks) to cut in the fats. Cut in the fats until the mixture resembles coarse meal. You should have some larger pieces of butter and shortening when you’re done.

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Next: ice water. Measure 1/2 cup (120ml) of water in a cup. Add ice. Stir it around. From that, measure 1/2 cup of water (since the ice has melted a bit!). Drizzle the cold water in, 1 Tablespoon (15ml) at a time, and stir with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon after every Tablespoon (15ml) added. Do not add any more water than you need to. Stop adding water when the dough begins to form large clumps. I always use 1/2 cup (120ml) of water.

If too much water is added, the pie dough will require more flour and thus become tough. If too little water is added, you’ll notice the dough is dry and crumbly when you try to roll it out and handle it.

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Vodka in Pie Crust? Speaking of liquids. Have you heard of adding cold vodka to pie dough? It comes as no surprise to me that the geniuses at Cook’s Illustrated rave about it. They say that half of the pie dough’s moisture should come from vodka, which is 40% pure alcohol. This alcohol doesn’t promote gluten formation, helping the crust stay flaky and tender. Basically, it is a BLESSING to those of us who accidentally overwork pie dough. If you want to try using vodka– use 1/4 cup cold vodka and 1/4 cup ice cold water in the below recipe.

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Back to my pie crust recipe. After the ice water is added, let’s chill it. Here are the steps:

  • Transfer the dough to a floured work surface.
  • Using floured hands, fold the dough into itself until the flour is fully incorporated into the fats.
  • Form it into a ball. The dough should come together easily and should not feel overly sticky.
  • Cut the dough in half.
  • Flatten each half into 1-inch thick discs using your hands. Wrap each tightly in plastic wrap.
  • Refrigerate for at least 2 hours or up to 5 days. Or freeze!

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Visible Specks and Swirls of Fat in Pie Dough

These specks and swirls of butter and shortening will help ensure a flaky pie dough. They are a GOOD thing!

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

How to Roll Out Pie Crust

After the dough has chilled, start preparing your pie. Roll out the crust. Always use gentle force. You are not mad at the crust. When rolling dough out, always start from the center and work your way out in all directions, turning the dough with your hands as you go.

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Turn, roll, turn, roll.

How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Roll the dough to fit a 9-inch pie dish. I typically roll the dough into a 12-inch circle so that there is enough crust to go up the edges of the dish and so I can trim and flute.

Do NOT be overwhelmed. I made sure to break everything down very easily, so a lot of the text in this recipe is me being as thorough as possible. Be sure to read through additional tips and troubleshooting below. Let me know about your pie adventures!

Homemade Buttery Flaky Pie Crust

This recipe is enough for a double crust pie. If you only need 1 crust for your pie, cut this recipe in half OR freeze the other half per the Make Ahead Tip instruction below.


  • 2 and 1/2 cups (315g) all-purpose flour
  • 1 and 1/4 teaspoons salt
  • 6 Tablespoons (90g) unsalted butter, chilled and cubed
  • 3/4 cup (148g) vegetable shortening, chilled
  • 1/2 cup (120ml) ice water


  1. Mix the flour and salt together in a large bowl. Add the butter and shortening.
  2. Using a pastry cutter (the one I own) or two forks, cut the butter and shortening into the mixture until it resembles coarse meal (pea-sized bits with a few larger bits of fat is OK). A pastry cutter makes this step very easy and quick.
  3. Measure 1/2 cup (120ml) of water in a cup. Add ice. Stir it around. From that, measure 1/2 cup (120ml) of water-- since the ice has melted a bit. Drizzle the cold water in, 1 Tablespoon (15ml) at a time, and stir with a rubber spatula or wooden spoon after every Tablespoon (15ml) added. Do not add any more water than you need to. Stop adding water when the dough begins to form large clumps. I always use about 1/2 cup (120ml) of water and a little more in dry winter months (up to 3/4 cup).
  4. Transfer the pie dough to a floured work surface. The dough should come together easily and should not feel overly sticky. Using floured hands, fold the dough into itself until the flour is fully incorporated into the fats. Form it into a ball. Divide dough in half. Flatten each half into 1-inch thick discs using your hands.
  5. Wrap each tightly in plastic wrap. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours (and up to 5 days).
  6. When rolling out the chilled pie dough discs to use in your pie, always use gentle force with your rolling pin. Start from the center of the disc and work your way out in all directions, turning the dough with your hands as you go.
  7. Proceed with the pie per your recipe's instructions.

Make ahead tip: Prepare the pie dough through step 4 and freeze the discs for up to 3 months. Thaw overnight in the refrigerator before using in your pie recipe.

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How to Make a Buttery, Flaky Pie Crust! Tips, tricks, and recipe included!

Pie Crust Tips

  1. I prefer using a glass pie dish when I make pie. Why? Glass dishes conduct heat evenly, which allows the bottom of the crust to bake thoroughly. Also, you’ll be able to see when the sides and bottom of the crust has browned.
  2. Keep everything cold. Cold fats are key, as you now know. On a hot day, you can even measure and chill your flour in the refrigerator before beginning. When taking the pie crust out of the refrigerator to roll out and fill, make sure your pie filling is ready to go. If not, keep the pie crust in the refrigerator until it is.
  3. Preheat the oven so that the cold dough will go into a hot oven.
  4. If your pie recipe requires pre-baking (crust “blind baking”)– let’s say you’re making a pie with an especially wet filling– use pie weights. Without pie weights, the dough will puff up, then shrink. Pie weights are made from metal or ceramic beads and work to weigh down the crust to prevent the puffing/shrinking. Dried beans can also be used! Whichever you choose, be sure to line the crust with parchment, then fill the empty pie crust with the weights all the way to the top of the pie dish rim prior to baking. More on pie weights.
  5. Use a pie crust shield to keep the crust edge covered, which protects it from browning too quickly or worse– burning. Use an adjustable silicone pie crust shield that you can fit to the size of your delicate pie crust. Metal can break the crust. Alternatively, you can cover the pie with a piece of aluminum foil. Cut a large circle in the center of the square so the center of the pie is exposed.
  6. If your pie recipe requires a pre-baked pie shell, such as banana cream pie, french silk pie, or a tart, here is what to do: prepare the pie crust through step 6. Roll out the chilled pie dough into a 12-inch circle, carefully place the dough into a 9-inch pie dish. Tuck it in with your fingers, making sure it is smooth, then trim and flute the edges. Prick the bottom of the crust all over with a fork, then line the crust with parchment paper and fill with pie weights. Bake at 375°F (190°C) until it begins to color around the edges. (15-20 minutes)

Troubleshooting Pie Crust

  • Prevent a crumbly pie dough. Make sure you use enough water when preparing your pie dough. Too little water will make your dough unworkable. Read more about water above.
  • Prevent a tough baked pie crust. Tough crusts are the result of not enough fat in the crust, as well as overworking the dough. Use the recipe above (plenty of fat) and don’t work the dough too much.
  • Prevent a burnt crust with a pie shield! See above.

Pie Recipes! Recipes to try using this crust: peach pie (in my cookbook!), cherry piechicken pot pie, pumpkin pie, quichebaked apples, salted pecan pie tarts, apple crumble pieblueberry peach pie, homemade pop-tarts!, and salted caramel apple pie.

How to make my FAVORITE pie crust! This is my go-to recipe!



All Comments

  1. You asked about gluten free crusts. Nothing of course substitutes for flour to get the same results, but you can get a tasty pie using, for example, ground nuts (almonds, walnuts, etc) instead of flour.

    I make (flour based) pie crusts using a virtually identical recipe to yours, which is failsafe and easy to remember. I change it up from time to time though, sometimes adding a heaping teaspoon of baking powder and/or tablespoon of sugar to the dry ingredients, and sometimes replacing some of the ice water with an egg and/or tablespoon of white vinegar. Each providing a slightly different result.

  2. Sally, thanks much for the tips! I’m new to baking, have lots to learn, and am really happy to have stumbled upon your site!
    My gluten-free crusts are made using Arrowhead Mills organic baking and pancake mix. The trick is to add xanthan gum,and as you say, keep all the ingredients cold. Makes an excellent crust! Aloha!

  3. This is my new favorite pastry crust! So, I made this for the first time around Thanksgiving, and I felt that there wasn’t quite enough pastry to work with to flute it beautifully, but it was so flaky that I knew I needed to keep this recipe around. When I made this last night, I increased all the ingredients by 25%, which was easy to do, since you include the gram measurements (much appreciated). This is THE flakiest, tenderest pastry crust EVER!! I also love that this makes 2 crusts, AND that you include make-ahead directions. I’m a food-prep-in-advance kind of girl, and I love that there are freezer instructions. Thanks so much for sharing this awesome recipe, Sally!

  4. Hi, I’ve been looking for a good recipe that combines both shortening and butter for a long time. Lard just seems a bit gross to me for sweets (haha) and all butter was way too golden and crisp. All shortening is bland. I made two pumpkin pies with this recipe and it is definitely a keeper. Got a lot of compliments on my pastry too! Thanks for sharing this.

  5. Hi, I use 300g flour, 150g cold butter and one cold egg instead of water (all blended in the processor) and roll it on cling film then bake straight away. Crust is tasty though shrinks a little. Should I be using more butter? I notice you have 250 butter+shortening with a similar amount of flour.

    What is the benefit of refridgerating the dough? is it taste developement or just easier to manage when rolling?

    Thx Chris

  6. Delish!! Made a chicken pot pie last night and there were zero leftovers. A win-win and super good compliment for any cook! Today I am making an apple pie using this crust recipe. You mention it yeilds enough for 2 9″ pies. Um. Am I missing something?? Only makes one.

  7. Help! When I try to roll out this dough it just breaks up into pieces and sticks to the rolling pin. I floured the counter. Is it because I live in a tropical climate? There is no air conditioning in my kitchen so it’s not possible to cool it down too much. Thanks!

  8. Hi Sally! I’ve made your pie crust a couple times now, and I think I’m doing something wrong. It tastes amazing, but the crust is very crumbly… I’ll leave the dough in the fridge overnight, and then the next day I’ll roll it out and it breaks a part into large chunks, so I add more cold water to help it stick better. I can somewhat manage rolling it out (it doesn’t quite look as pretty as yours!) but then even when it bakes, sometimes the pieces of the crust will break off and crumble everywhere and its a mess… Should I try using more water? But then too much water I think it’ll be too sticky. My problem sounds similar to Sarah’s. Help! 🙂

    1. Hey Caryn! A little sticky is ok, so don’t feel like you’re doing anything wrong when you are mixing up the pie dough and are adding more ice water. It’s cracking and crumbling because it’s too dry. The dry winter weather doesn’t help either! I always add more water in the winter months and less in the summer.

    1. It really should be chilled for at least 2 hours. The freezer may unevenly chill it– some super cold spots, some warmer spots. I recommend the fridge.

  9. I’m gonna have to admit it smells delicious this was the easiest pie crust I’ve ever made! I haven’t baked yet but I’m hoping I added enough water but either way I feel like I’m going to love it even if it crumbles while eating lol 🙂

  10. Sally, I’m used to using only top crust for Veggie pot pies but my children had individual pot pies with top and bottom crust. I’m concerened about ending up with a soggy bottom. How can I avoid this from happening? Susanna

    1. Sally, tried it last night and was very pleased with results. No soggy bottom on crust. Thanks for the simple recipe for a good crust.

    2. I have a baking stone (Pampered Chef) and I put it in the cold oven and preheat it along with the oven.  I always blind bake my crust regardless of the filling.  After 15-20 minutes of blind baking, I brush the crust with egg wash and bake another 1-2 minutes.  I keep the stone in the oven and put my filled pie crust on it and bake.  It helps the bottom crust get, & stay, flaky.

  11. Hi Sally,  I am excited to use your crust for your peacan pie and a French silk pie I’m making for Easter. I have to blind bake the French silk pie. What temp and how long do I bake it for?  

    Thanks so much! 

    1. If the crust needs to be fully blind-baked (and not simply pre-baked), I usually blind-bake at 300F for 18 minutes.

  12. Helppp! I’ve read your post a  times to try to see where I’m going wrong, which could be a series of things, burn maybe you have some insight. Every time I make this, when I go to roll my dough, it basically cracks, never letting me get to the 12″ circle. Then I end up over working the dough trying to make up for it and it’s a hot mess. 

    Any ideas? I’m pretty confident I follow the recipe pretty well. 

  13. Crying as I’m trying to make this dough. I have made pie dough a million times. This either sticks to my rolling pin or breaks the second I manipulate it to create lattice. Chilled dough for three hours, worked as quickly as possible rolling it out to keep it cool. Don’t know if it’s the high fat content but it just kept sticking to the rolling pin. Attempted to flour a little prior to each pass with the pin and still no luck. Really wanted to try this new recipe but not having success. Any ideas??? 

    1. The sticking would be due to humidity OR too much liquid in the dough. Or both. Did you follow the recipe as written as well? KA flour, cold cold cold butter, chilling, ice cold water, etc?

      1. I will say, I forged ahead and although my lattice was not the prettiest, this was one of the best pie crusts I have ever tasted. Absolutely phenomenal. In regards to humidity, we live in Las Vegas so actually quite dry. I used three tablespoons of ice water, gradually, and followed the recipe to a tee. I am going to give this another try, this time rolling out on wax paper instead of a wooden cutting board, and I bought King Arthur flour. I’m super hopeful because this recipe is delicious! 

  14. You said to do steps 1-4 in order to freeze the dough, but should they still be wrapped in saran wrap prior to freezing?

  15. Love your blog…tried a few things and they always turned out great especially your salted caramel and the maple pecan sticky buns.
    I really want to make this pie crust because I want to try your mini pecan tarts…just want to know if I can use ONLY butter because my mum doesnt believe in shortening…..


  16. When you say “shortening” – are you using Crisco? Even though they have removed the trans fats (which is what made Crisco, Crisco :(….).
    I’ve never been able to master pies or pie crusts – my mother taught me a lot about baking cookies and I’ve learned to do cakes from scratch on my own, but she passed away before I got her pie crust recipe, and most importantly – her lemon meringue and chocolate pies! I’ll check your site to see if you have any recipes for these – my dad loves the lemon, and my brother the chocolate – so would like to make those.

    Anyways – anxious to try this, but just want to find out about the shortening – Crisco (and is the butter-flavored too much butter??) or is there something else you use? I can go to the specialty store to get lard, but it’s a bit of a drive for me. Thanks!! The instructions are fantastic and can’t wait to try this for some fresh summer fruit pies 🙂 – Jennifer

  17. I don’t use shortening due to the trans fat in it and would like to use lard instead. Would you recommend just subbing it for the shortening or is the ratio different?

  18. Hi Sally! If I wanted to make hand pies instead, should I divide and wrap the dough into more pieces? Instead of dividing in two chunks for the top and bottom of a standard pie, should I divide by the number of hand pies I want and roll them out the same way after chilling? Or should I keep the dough together and divide and roll after it chills for 2+ hours?

  19. Hi, this looks like a great recipe and I want to prepare the pie crust to make your cherry pie tomorrow. I live in the Netherlands and we don’t have shortening here. What other substitute can I use and what ratio? 

    I see in yuor blog post you tried the butter as substitute, but mentions that it tasted too buttery.

    Thanks so much

  20. May I add a little hint about blind baking? If you crumple the parchment paper in your hands before laying it on the crust, you will find it will lay down much better before adding the pie weights.

  21. I cannot for the life of me get this pie crust to work. I am not an inexperienced baker however this pie crust has got me stumped! The first time I tried it it stuck… to everything. I followed the directions exactly, however once I cut in all the fats the dough wad already forming large clumps. When I tried to roll it out after chilling it for about three hours it stuck to the rolling pin no matter how much flour I used. I tried it a second time and made it step by step along with the video you shared in a previous comment and the results were the same. Help!

  22. Hi Sally!

    Ive baked this crust a lot of times already and it was a success with the peach crumble pie. Today, I baked the apple crumble pie again and was careful to follow all the instructions precisely. I did follow the temperatures however it turned out to look pale and raw. I baked it again for another hour to see if it will do any good but it didnt. I wanted to bake it for another hour but the filling was starting to dry up. Thus, coming out pale. Am I doing anything wrong?

    1. Hi Margo! The recipes are so similar, I wonder why you had trouble with the apple version. 2 hours in the oven and not cooking? That’s so bizarre to me! Perhaps cut down slightly on the apples in the apple crumble pie maybe 4 apples instead? Less filling could help the crust brown on the inside.

  23. Hi Sally! Every year for my birthday I make a blueberry pie. The one time I tried a homemade pie crust, it stuck to everything. It was a mess so I scrapped the top crust and only used the bottom. I’m going to attempt it again tomorrow morning. It is very hot and humid this week in NC. Any tips besides keep everything as cold as possible? Can I use coconut oil instead of Crisco or is that not a good substitution? Thanks and congratulations of your sweet baby! So happy for you!! 🙂

    1. Hi Janine! Great questions. I wouldn’t use coconut oil instead of Crisco, especially in extremely hot and humid weather as you mention. Shortening has a very high melting point and will stay solid longer, which is what you want. I find making the pie crust the night before and refrigerating it all night helps. After assembling the pie, stick the whole thing in the fridge so it’s extra cold going into the oven. I hope these help! Thank you so much for congrats 🙂

      1. Thanks Sally! I just finished watching your FB live video on the crust. I’m going to give it a whirl now! 🙂

  24. Hi Sally. It’s difficult for me to cut the butter and shortening into the flour because mi hands hurt. Can you do this crust in the fiod processor? Thanks!

  25. Hi Sally, first, LOVE your recipes — you never lead me astray! I know the recipe for this crust says you can freeze for up to three months, but any idea how long it keeps in the refrigerator?

  26. Hello, Sally! I’ve been a long time follower of your blog. Everything I’ve ever made has come out spectacular, and I always get rave reviews from your recipes. Your red velvet cupcakes have been declared the best cupcakes ever made more than once! I’ve never commented before, but I wanted to take the time to thank you so much for this delicious pie crust recipe. I come from a long line of cooks who have never been able to make pie crust (true story!), and I was so nervous. But you broke the steps down so incredibly well, and it was easy for me to follow and understand. I’m happy to report that the pie crust came out beautifully on my first try! Thank you so, so much for all that you do – and helping me earn my reputation as a baker!

    1. This comment makes me so happy! I’m thrilled you finally tackled pie crust – homemade pie is truly my favorite thing to make 🙂

  27. First off..right off the bat… your recipes are amazing!!
    My question is simple.. when it comes to your cherry pie recipe, would you or would you not recommend frozen cherries(Costco)?

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