With a video tutorial and in-depth explanations, learn how to properly measure baking ingredients and why measuring is so crucial in baking.
With every recipe I publish, my goal is to help you become a more confident baker. Baking from scratch doesn’t have to be difficult. If you’re set up with the right resources and tools, you can put the FUN back into your kitchen.
Today we’re focusing on something that may seem trivial to you, but it’s the most important step in every recipe you bake. Measuring ingredients properly is imperative. You see, baking is not very forgiving. It’s a science and estimating measurements could spell disaster. While you can easily get away with a handful of this or that when you’re cooking dinner, even the slightest baking miscalculation could turn your soft chocolate chip cookies into rocks. Understanding the correct measuring technique for a particular ingredient will guarantee better baking results. Because the difference between a recipe success and a recipe failure could lie within 1 mis-measured ingredient.
When it comes to baking, it pays off to be a perfectionist. Learn how to properly measure baking ingredients so your next recipe is a success.
How to Properly Measure Baking Ingredients
How to Measure Flour
Flour is the most common mis-measured ingredient. Whether you’re using bread flour, cake flour, all-purpose flour, or any other flours on the market, use the “spoon & level” method. Do not scoop the flour out of the container/bag with your measuring cup because you could end up with 50% more than you need. Rather, using a spoon, scoop the flour into the measuring cup. Do not pack the flour down and do not tap the measuring cup as both cause the flour to settle in the cup. After you’ve spooned the flour into the measuring cup, use the back of a knife to level off the top of the measuring cup.
- Drill this in your head: Spoon & level flour. Do not scoop flour.
- How do I measure sifted flour? If a recipe calls for “1 cup of flour, sifted”—measure the flour, then sift it. If a recipe calls for “1 cup of sifted flour”—sift the flour then measure. It all depends where the word “sifted” is in the ingredient wording. If “sifted” is before the ingredient name, sift before measuring. If “sifted” is after the ingredient name, sift after measuring.
My favorite containers for bulk storing ingredients are these tightly sealed flour keepers. (Affiliate link, I love them!) I own about 10 and recommend them to anyone who asks. I use them for my all-purpose flour, cake flour, bread flour, brown sugar, granulated sugar, and more. They hold 3.8 quarts, which is about one 5 lb bag of flour. I use a label maker to make labels for each—they’re placed on top.
Make sure you are using the correct type of oats that your recipe calls for. To measure oats, use the same spoon & level method that you use for flour.
Whole oats and quick oats are different and depend on the cut of the oat. I most often use old-fashioned whole rolled oats in recipes like granola, oatmeal bars, and oatmeal cookies. Quick oats are finely chopped whole oats that have a more powdery consistency. When a more powdery, fine oat is ideal in a recipe, I use quick oats. To avoid having two different types of oats on hand in my baking supplies, I make my own quick oats from whole oats. This is very easy: pulse whole oats in a blender or food processor about 5-10 times to break them up to reach the quick oat consistency.
BAKING POWDER & BAKING SODA
Baking powder and baking soda can settle down in their containers over time. Shake it up or give it a stir, then using a measuring spoon, lightly scoop out of the container. Use a knife (or the container if it has a leveler) to level it off.
Always remember the difference in baking powder vs baking soda. Each expire after 6 months, though I find they begin losing strength after 3 months. Write the date on the box so you know when to replace.
Standard packets of yeast hold 2 and 1/4 teaspoons, which is 1/4 ounce. If your recipe calls for more or less than 1 standard packet of yeast (or if you are measuring out of a jar or container), measure yeast how you measure baking powder or baking soda.
- Dry yeast can be sold as active-dry or instant. I answer plenty of yeast FAQs, including the difference between yeasts, on my Baking with Yeast page.
- If a recipe calls for dry yeast and you only have cake yeast (aka fresh yeast), use this handy conversion chart.
WHITE GRANULATED SUGAR
Unlike flour, sugar is measured by scooping the measuring cup or spoon into the container/bag until it is overflowing, then leveling it off with the back of a knife. Sugar is heavier than flour, so it’s less likely to pack down into the measuring cup. It’s also more forgiving in recipes than other ingredients because the sweetness of a finished product depends on your tastebuds. However, it is always best to measure the ingredients exactly as the recipe states because sugar crystals are imperative to break down other ingredients. Sugar also aids in proper browning, texture, structure, and stabilization.
Measure brown sugar like you measure granulated sugar. Unless the recipe states otherwise, brown sugar should be packed into the measuring cup or measuring spoon. Light brown sugar is most common, while dark brown sugar has a slightly stronger molasses flavor. Unless the recipe states otherwise, you can use light brown sugar and dark brown sugar interchangeably.
CONFECTIONERS’ SUGAR (Powdered Sugar/Icing Sugar)
Measure confectioners’ sugar using the same spoon & level method as flour, explained above. Sift confectioners’ sugar if the recipe calls for it. If your confectioners’ sugar is extra lumpy though, it’s best practice to sift it anyway. (No one wants pockets of powdered sugar in their otherwise smooth whipped cream!) As detailed above in the Flour section, 1 cup confectioners’ sugar, sifted means that the sugar is sifted after measuring and 1 cup sifted confectioners’ sugar means that the sugar is sifted before measuring.
Whether you’re using natural or dutched cocoa, measure cocoa powder using the same spoon & level method as flour and confectioners’ sugar. Like confectioners’ sugar, cocoa powder can clump up. If a recipe calls for sifting it, make sure you take the time to do so.
- Further Reading: Dutch-process Vs Natural Cocoa Powder
Liquid sweeteners include maple syrup, molasses, honey, corn syrup, agave, etc. Measure these thick and sticky liquids in dry measuring cups.
- A handy tip: To easily measure sticky sweeteners, spray the inside of the measuring cup lightly with nonstick spray. This will make it much easier to get the sweetener out of the cup!
Liquids used in baking such as milk, water, oil, etc should be measured at eye level. Using a liquid measuring cup, pour the liquid into the cup. Then, bend down to make sure the liquid is EXACTLY at level with the measuring requirement of the recipe.
The semi-liquids I’m referring to here are ingredients like sour cream, yogurt, peanut butter, applesauce, mashed banana, etc. Measure these semi-liquid ingredients in dry measuring cups. They are too thick to be accurately measured in liquid measuring cups. Spoon & level, like you do with sugar or flour, then use a rubber spatula to help release the ingredients into the mixing bowl.
- What about butter? Butter is usually sold in sticks, either 1/2 cup (8 Tablespoons) sticks or 1/4 cup (4 Tablespoons) sticks. This makes measuring very convenient—simply slice off however much you need in a recipe. If your butter isn’t in stick form, use a dry measuring cup to measure it. If a recipe calls for melted butter, measure the butter in its solid state, then melt it.
The add-ins I’m referring to here are chocolate chips, chopped fruit, sprinkles, nuts, etc. Simply scoop or pour them into a dry measuring cup. These ingredients aren’t typically used to make up the structure of a baked good, so there’s no need to be as precise.
I find the following measurement equivalents helpful.
Dry Ingredient Equivalents:
- 1 Tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
- 1/8 cup = 2 Tablespoons
- 1/4 cup = 4 Tablespoons
- 1/3 cup = 5-1/3 Tablespoons
- 1/2 cup = 8 Tablespoons
- 2/3 cup = 10 and 2/3 Tablespoons
- 3/4 cup = 12 Tablespoons
- 1 cup = 16 Tablespoons
Liquid Ingredient Equivalents:
- 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = 1/2 pint
- 2 cups = 16 fluid ounces = 1 pint
- 4 cups = 32 fluid ounces = 2 pints = 1 quart
- 8 cups = 64 fluid ounces = 4 pints
- 4 quarts = 128 fluid ounces = 1 gallon
Free Printable PDF for Measuring & Weights
Print out this helpful PDF (2 pages) and have it handy in your kitchen.
**Click this link for the PDF: Sally’s Baking Recipes Baking Conversions Common Weights
Here is a photo preview of page 2:
Use a Kitchen Scale to Measure
A cup isn’t always a cup, but a gram or ounce is always a gram or ounce. Metric weights, such as a gram or ounce, are most accurate. Cup measurements are standard where I live, so that is why I offer my recipes in both cup and metric measurements.
When I’m developing recipes for my website and books, I weigh the ingredients in my recipe testing. Some may say weighing ingredients is a waste of time, but if you want the most precise results, weighing your ingredients will help. No need to spoon & level ingredients if you’re weighing them, but if a recipe instructs you sift the ingredient, it’s still best to do so before or after weighing (depending which the recipe instructs).
- Here is (affiliate link) the food scale I own.
- Place your measuring cup on the scale, zero it out, then add your ingredient.
Though it’s best to use the weights given if the recipe supplies them, you can refer to the following list if needed. Different products and brands could have different weights, but this is what I usually measure common baking ingredients to be.
- 1 cup all-purpose flour = 125 grams (4 1/2 ounces)
- 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour = 118 grams (4 ounces)
- 1 cup bread flour = 130 grams (4 1/2 ounces)
- 1 cup cake flour = 118 grams (4 ounces)
- 1 cup sifted cake flour = 105 grams (3 1/2 ounces)
- 1 cup (packed) brown sugar = 200 grams (7 1/2 ounces)
- 1/2 cup butter = 1 stick = 115 grams (4 ounces)
- 1 cup chocolate chips = 180 grams (6 1/4 ounces)
- 1/2 cup natural unsweetened cocoa powder = 41 grams (1.6 ounces)
- 1 cup confectioners’ sugar = 120 grams (4 1/4 ounces)
- 1 cup sifted confectioners’ sugar = 115 grams (4 ounces)
- 1/4 cup cornstarch = 28 grams (1 ounce)
- 1 cup granulated sugar = 200 grams (7 1/2 ounces)
- 1 Tablespoon honey = 21 grams (3/4 ounce)
- 1/2 cup maple syrup = 156 grams (5 1/2 ounces)
- 1 cup milk = 227 grams (240ml; 8 ounces)
- 1/4 cup molasses = 85 grams (3 ounces)
- 1 cup oats = 85 grams (3 ounces)
- 1/2 cup peanut butter = 135 grams (4 3/4 ounces)
- 1 cup sour cream or yogurt = 227 grams (8 ounces)
Want to Learn More?
My Baking Tips section is growing!
- Cake Pan Sizes & Conversions
- My 10 Best Baking Tips
- Make-Ahead Baking
- How to Prevent a Dry or Dense Cake
- 14 Best Baking Tools That Every Baker Needs
- 10 Best Pie Baking Tools
Reader Comments & Reviews
Hi sally! I love your monster cookies recipe! My kids LOVE them too! We are grateful for you and your recipes!
I measured 1 cup of flour using the spoon and level method and weighed it bc I was curious and it was 149 g! How is it so far off from the 125 g it is supposed to be???
Hi Lexie, I consistently weigh 1 cup of spooned and leveled flour as 125g, or even close to 130g. My team and I test the recipes on this website using the weights given. Fluff up the flour a bit before spooning and leveling.
Ok thanks for the reply and tip!
I usually measure with my scale but I was shocked how off my “spoon and leveled” cup was! Guess it just goes to show why measuring in grams with a scale is best 🙂
I have a hummingbird cupcakes recipes in one of my favorite cookbooks. One of the ingredients says “1/2 cup canned crushed pineapple in juice, with juice”. How do I measure that ingredient, and what measuring cup do I use for it and why?
What type of measuring cup do I use measure ingredients such as tahini, unsweetened coconut milk, and hot sauce?
Hi Allison! When measuring canned pineapple in juice, you can use dry measuring cups – spoon into the measuring cup making sure to get both the juice and the pineapple. Tahini can be measured as a liquid or semi-liquid, depending on how wet it is. Unsweetened coconut milk and hot sauce are both be measured as liquids (make sure to shake the coconut milk before opening)- see blog post above for details on measuring liquids and semi-liquids!
What if the recipe doesn’t mention sifting the flour at all? Do you sift then measure or measure and then sift?
Hi Valorie, if the recipe doesn’t mention sifting the flour, we don’t sift it. If the recipe calls for “sifted flour,” you’ll want to sift the flour then measure.
Hi Sally. I’m in the process of converting my recipes to grams. Do you use King Arthur flour for all your baking?
I’ve come across three different weights for one cup of flour. Yours 125 grams, Cook’s Illustrated 142 grams, and King Arthur is 120 grams. Can you explain the discrepancies for me? Thanks so much for all you do for your subscribers!
Hi Lor, yes, this is a confusing topic for all of us! As you know, how tightly the flour is packed into the cup can cause the weight to vary greatly. Some experts use 120g and some use 125 grams for 1 cup of flour, and really, 5 grams is very little difference, so you can just aim to get it somewhere between the two. We use 125g in our recipes, and yes, Sally does prefer King Arthur flour! The best piece of advice we have is to follow the standard of the author of the recipe you’re using. So if Cook’s Illustrated says 142g/5oz for a cup of flour in their recipes, that is what you should use when making their recipes. In Sally’s recipes, always use 125g. Hope this helps!
Hi Sally! I’m new (very new) at baking, it’s something I’ve always wanted to do, just never have.. but here I am now. I so appreciate your Baking Conversion, I also appreciate how you took the time to go over each one. For someone like me, just starting out, it’s helps so much. I added this 0age to my “home screen” so it’s always at my fingertips and I don’t have to search. I also just ordered a scale so I can start weighing out my ingredients. I’m super excited to bake something new now that I have everything I need. Thank you so much for taking the time to help new bakers.
Hi Brittany, thank you for sharing this. We wish you the best on your baking journey!
I had a question about weighing ingredients. If I want to use the metric weights for a recipe, can I just measure the ingredient directly into the mixing bowl versus putting the measuring cup on the scale, adding the ingredients to the appropriate weight, and then adding it to my recipe? I hope my question makes sense.
Hi Laura! As long as you “zero out” your scale after adding each ingredient, you can absolutely do that! As long as your scale can handle the weight.
Dear Sally, I am a first-time baker and find the cup or tablespoon measurements confusing as I live in Australia and believe that 1 tbsp of a dry ingredient as per US measurements is not the same as Australian measurements. Should I just stick with measurements in grams for dry ingredients? How do I convert liquid measurements as per Australian standards?
Hi Neha, yes I would just use the measurements in grams then. For the liquid, it might be easiest to search “American to Australian cup measurements” to find a chart so you can adjust. I know there are lots online!
When I bake, I just scoop flour out of the bag and remove any if I have to. I don’t usually spoon and level with a knife, and my baked goods always come out fine. Is there a reason for this?
Hi Kim, Do not scoop the flour out of the container/bag with your measuring cup because you could end up with 50% more than you need. This could result in dry or crumbly baked goods.
Hi Sally and team!
I made your glazed lime and coconut cookies this week and they turned out excellently!
However, I wondered what “1 tablespoon of dough” would amount to in grams?
I prefer to weigh out the dough for each cookie so that I can be exact. I ended up using 25g for each cookie and they turned out well, but just wondered if I’m near what you intended.
PS your recipes are my trusted go-to’s!
Hi Amber! 1 Tbsp of dough is approximately 20g. Thank you so much for using my recipes in your baking!
Nitpick: an ounce isn’t a metric measurement, and metric and imperial weights are just as accurate as each other. Still, when measuring anything powdery I always reach for the scale, because whether you scoop or spoon and level you can always make 125g of flour fill much more or less than a cup volume depending on how you happen to do it that day.
I have been making scones using your recipes. They are amazing!
I want to try vanilla bean scones, do you have a recipe for them?
Which one of your cookbooks has your scone recipes in?
Hi Bonnie, for a vanilla bean scone, we’d recommend following our master scone recipe and adding a teaspoon of vanilla beans/paste in addition to the vanilla extract. Then you can certainly adjust for future batches if you’d like a more/less prominent vanilla taste. There are not any scone recipes in the cookbooks. Let us know how it goes!
Thank you so much for your guidance Sally! I’ve had many “Ohhhh, I see” moments after years of baking. What is the proper way is to measure shortening. Do you pack it in, then level off? The “packing” with the back of a spoon always seems inconsistent for me.
Hi Delia! Yes, that’s how we do it. Just try to really pack it in without any air pockets for the most accurate measurement!
I can tell that you truly put in a lot of time and effort into this! It is fantastic, and incredibly helpful! Brilliant job as always. I’m about to make your caramel apple pie bars for my boyfriend’s family. Crossing my fingers that everything turns out okay haha!
Thank you for giving the RIGHT way to measure flour — SPOONING, NOT SCOOPING! I always measure by volume, not weight. I’ve never weighed ingredients. There’s the old saying, “A pint’s a pound the world around.” That simply means, whether dry or liquid, 16 oz. is 16 oz. I don’t believe in using different measuring cups for dry and liquid ingredients. It makes no difference. A cup is a cup.
I love you, Sally!! You’re my favorite baker. I use your Soft Chocolate Chip and your Master Scone receipes frequently!! I was so stoked to find the common weights and conversions. What a time saver! Thank you:)
Does it matter if you use rimmed cookie sheets or cookie sheets without rims when baking cookies.
Hi Sondra! For cookies it doesn’t matter which you use.
When measuring coconut for a recipe, and the recipe calls for one cup which is 8 ounces, do you use a whole bag if it says 7 ounces or do you still measure out the coconut to that one cup?
Really? I didn’t know that. I have the Disney Princess Baking and Healthy Treats cookbooks, and I use the dry measuring cup for honey and/or pure maple syrup. I wonder why the measurements for liquid sweeteners are the only interchangeable measurements in baking?
Hi Allison! It’s simply about which tool is easier to measure accurately for each ingredient. The volume of a cup will always be the same (but the weight will vary by ingredient as detailed above) – if you fill up your dry measuring cup with 1 cup of water and pour it into a wet measuring cup, they will both measure 1 cup. But the wet measuring cup with a spout on the side is made to be easier for measuring liquids. Hope this makes sense!
Hi. I use dry measuring cups for measuring honey and maple syrup in my recipes. Why do we use dry measuring cups when we measure honey, molasses, and corn syrup?
Some websites say to use liquid measuring cups. I’m puzzled.
Hi Allison! You can use either – the cup measurement holds true for both. We find it easier to measure those ingredients from a dry measuring cup because it’s easier to scoop out, but feel free to use what you prefer.
I have a Fresh Apple Cake recipe that calls for using cake flour. Recipe says “measure cake flour, then sift, and then re-measure.”. I did this last time and the cake did not turn out as it usually has. When I sifted and re-measured the flour there was quite a bit of re-measured flour left over! Did I do it right?
Hi Lucinda, it sounds like you did it right based on those directions. Here’s some tips for baking cakes that make be helpful.
Grandma’s recipe calls for heaping Tbsp of shortening. How much is that?
Hello! I was wondering about bleached vs. I bleached flour-which one should we be using for all our general baking needs?
Hi Herra, We bake with unbleached flour when we can, but either will work!
I absolutely appreciate all of your tips. You are my go to when I am looking for a recipe – carrot cake is in the queue!
Hi Sally –
cup sizes in australia are different to US. Therefore, do I just follow weight measurements to ensure success?
Hi Michelle, following weight measurements is always the most accurate way to measure. We’d suggest following those for best results!
I’ve been looking at your list of common ingredients which is very helpful. I’m wondering if you could add to the list 1/2 cup of shortening. I’m trying to use Sally’s common weights in all my baking — but I’m not sure what shortening measures as. Thanks for your help — great website, great recipes!
Hi Donna! Shortening is about 192g per cup, so 96g per half cup. Hope this helps!
I have found some simple 2 ingredient, unsweetened, bread recipes. The recipes say add sugar for a sweet bread…but doesn’t indicate how much. Weird! So per cup of flour, how much sugar would you recommend. Example, pumpkin rolls recipe is 1 1/4 pumpkin purée and 2 cups self rising flour. Thanking you in advance for any suggestion!
Hi Sally & team! I have mL measuring cups, but I’m not sure if I can use them to measure grams as well? Please reply with an answer! Because I might’ve been doing this all wrong
Hi Leah! Grams are a measurement of weight, so your measuring cups won’t be much help there – you can use a kitchen scale to measure grams. Milliliters are a measurement of volume, not weight, and are used to measure liquids. Hope this helps!
I’m wanting to make a denser yeast bread how do I do that?
My scale has mL on it. Every time a recipe with mL in it, I flip it over to that setting and weigh it out. I’m wrong for doing so?
Do you use a scoop for portioning out cupcakes? If so, what size do you use?
Hi Emily, I don’t. Some recipes call for filling the liners only halfway while others call for 2/3 or 3/4 full. I usually use a large spoon and eyeball it.
What brand of AP flour do you use for your baking?
Hi Koffee, we love King Arthur brand flour. (Not working with them, just genuine fans!)
Two words: King Arthur. It’s the brand my grandmother used. She was particular, so if it met her standards, it’s good enough for me.
Hi, I’m really glad i came across your website. I’m just a beginner who is just about to learn how to bake and i have been browsing non stop not getting the right guide and i connot be more than happy to get this. Thank you so much! Excited about it.
So glad to read this! Thank you so much.