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With a video tutorial and in-depth explanations, learn how to properly measure baking ingredients and why measuring is so crucial in baking.

flour butter milk eggs and sugar

With every recipe I publish, my goal is to help you become a more confident baker. Baking from scratch doesn’t have to be difficult. If you’re set up with the right resources and tools, you can put the FUN back into your kitchen.

Today we’re focusing on something that may seem trivial to you, but it’s the most important step in every recipe you bake. Measuring ingredients properly is imperative. You see, baking is not very forgiving. It’s a science and estimating measurements could spell disaster. While you can easily get away with a handful of this or that when you’re cooking dinner, even the slightest baking miscalculation could turn your soft chocolate chip cookies into rocks. Understanding the correct measuring technique for a particular ingredient will guarantee better baking results. Because the difference between a recipe success and a recipe failure could lie within 1 mis-measured ingredient. 

When it comes to baking, it pays off to be a perfectionist. Learn how to properly measure baking ingredients so your next recipe is a success.

How to Properly Measure Baking Ingredients

How to Measure Flour

Flour is the most common mis-measured ingredient. Whether you’re using bread flour, cake flour, all-purpose flour, or any other flours on the market, use the “spoon & level” method. Do not scoop the flour out of the container/bag with your measuring cup because you could end up with 50% more than you need. Rather, using a spoon, scoop the flour into the measuring cup. Do not pack the flour down and do not tap the measuring cup as both cause the flour to settle in the cup. After you’ve spooned the flour into the measuring cup, use the back of a knife to level off the top of the measuring cup.

  • Drill this in your head: Spoon & level flour. Do not scoop flour.
  • How do I measure sifted flour? If a recipe calls for “1 cup of flour, sifted” — measure the flour, then sift it. If a recipe calls for “1 cup of sifted flour” — sift the flour then measure. It all depends where the word “sifted” is in the ingredient wording. If “sifted” is before the ingredient name, sift before measuring. If “sifted” is after the ingredient name, sift after measuring.

My favorite containers for bulk storing ingredients are these tightly sealed flour keepers. (Affiliate link, I love them!) I own about 10 and recommend them to anyone who asks. I use them for my all-purpose flour, cake flour, bread flour, brown sugar, granulated sugar, and more. They hold 3.8 quarts, which is about one 5 lb bag of flour. I use a label maker to make labels for each– they’re placed on top.

flour storage containers


Make sure you are using the correct type of oats that your recipe calls for. To measure oats, use the same spoon & level method that you use for flour.

Whole oats and quick oats are different and depend on the cut of the oat. I most often use old-fashioned whole rolled oats in recipes like granola, oatmeal bars, and oatmeal cookies. Quick oats are finely chopped whole oats that have a more powdery consistency. When a more powdery, fine oat is ideal in a recipe, I use quick oats. To avoid having two different types of oats on hand in my baking supplies, I make my own quick oats from whole oats. This is very easy: pulse whole oats in a blender or food processor about 5-10 times to break them up to reach the quick oat consistency.


Baking powder and baking soda can settle down in their containers over time. Shake it up or give it a stir, then using a measuring spoon, lightly scoop out of the container. Use a knife (or the container if it has a leveler) to level it off.

Always remember the difference in baking powder vs baking soda. Each expire after 6 months, though I find they begin losing strength after 3 months. Write the date on the box so you know when to replace.


Standard packets of yeast hold 2 and 1/4 teaspoons, which is 1/4 ounce. If your recipe calls for more or less than 1 standard packet of yeast (or if you are measuring out of a jar or container), measure yeast how you measure baking powder or baking soda.

  • Dry yeast can be sold as active-dry or instant. I answer plenty of yeast FAQs, including the difference between yeasts, on my Baking with Yeast page.
  • If a recipe calls for dry yeast and you only have cake yeast (aka fresh yeast), use this handy conversion chart.


Unlike flour, sugar is measured by scooping the measuring cup or spoon into the container/bag until it is overflowing, then leveling it off with the back of a knife. Sugar is heavier than flour, so it’s less likely to pack down into the measuring cup. It’s also more forgiving in recipes than other ingredients because the sweetness of a finished product depends on your tastebuds. However, it is always best to measure the ingredients exactly as the recipe states because sugar crystals are imperative to break down other ingredients. Sugar also aids in proper browning, texture, structure, and stabilization.


Measure brown sugar like you measure granulated sugar. Unless the recipe states otherwise, brown sugar should be packed into the measuring cup or measuring spoon. Light brown sugar is most common, while dark brown sugar has a slightly stronger molasses flavor. Unless the recipe states otherwise, you can use light brown sugar and dark brown sugar interchangeably.

CONFECTIONERS’ SUGAR (Powdered Sugar/Icing Sugar)

Measure confectioners’ sugar using the same spoon & level method as flour, explained above. Sift confectioners’ sugar if the recipe calls for it. If your confectioners’ sugar is extra lumpy though, it’s best practice to sift it anyway. (No one wants pockets of powdered sugar in their otherwise smooth whipped cream!) As detailed above in the Flour section, 1 cup confectioners’ sugar, sifted means that the sugar is sifted after measuring and 1 cup sifted confectioners’ sugar means that the sugar is sifted before measuring.


Whether you’re using natural or dutched cocoa, measure cocoa powder using the same spoon & level method as flour and confectioners’ sugar. Like confectioners’ sugar, cocoa powder can clump up. If a recipe calls for sifting it, make sure you take the time to do so.

two kinds of cocoa powder


Liquid sweeteners include maple syrup, molasses, honey, corn syrup, agave, etc. Measure these thick and sticky liquids in dry measuring cups.

  • A handy tip: To easily measure sticky sweeteners, spray the inside of the measuring cup lightly with nonstick spray. This will make it much easier to get the sweetener out of the cup!


Liquids used in baking such as milk, water, oil, etc should be measured at eye level. Using a liquid measuring cup, pour the liquid into the cup. Then, bend down to make sure the liquid is EXACTLY at level with the measuring requirement of the recipe.


The semi-liquids I’m referring to here are ingredients like sour cream, yogurt, peanut butter, applesauce, mashed banana, etc. Measure these semi-liquid ingredients in dry measuring cups. They are too thick to be accurately measured in liquid measuring cups. Spoon & level, like you do with sugar or flour, then use a rubber spatula to help release the ingredients into the mixing bowl.

  • What about butter? Butter is usually sold in sticks, either 1/2 cup (8 Tablespoons) sticks or 1/4 cup (4 Tablespoons) sticks. This makes measuring very convenient– simply slice off however much you need in a recipe. If your butter isn’t in stick form, use a dry measuring cup to measure it. If a recipe calls for melted butter, measure the butter in its solid state, then melt it.


The add-ins I’m referring to here are chocolate chips, chopped fruit, sprinkles, nuts, etc. Simply scoop or pour them into a dry measuring cup. These ingredients aren’t typically used to make up the structure of a baked good, so there’s no need to be as precise.

ingredients measured in measuring cups

I find the following measurement equivalents helpful.

Dry Ingredient Equivalents:

  • 1 Tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
  • 1/8 cup = 2 Tablespoons
  • 1/4 cup = 4 Tablespoons
  • 1/3 cup = 5-1/3 Tablespoons
  • 1/2 cup =  8 Tablespoons
  • 2/3 cup = 10 and 2/3 Tablespoons
  • 3/4 cup = 12 Tablespoons
  • 1 cup = 16 Tablespoons

Liquid Ingredient Equivalents:

  • 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = 1/2 pint
  • 2 cups = 16 fluid ounces = 1 pint
  • 4 cups = 32 fluid ounces = 2 pints = 1 quart
  • 8 cups = 64 fluid ounces = 4 pints
  • 4 quarts = 128 fluid ounces = 1 gallon

Free Printable PDF for Measuring & Weights

Print out this helpful PDF (2 pages) and have it handy in your kitchen.

**Click this link for the PDF: Sally’s Baking Recipes Baking Conversions Common Weights

Here is a photo preview of page 2:

baking conversions list of ingredients and their volume + metric weights.

Use a Kitchen Scale to Measure

A cup isn’t always a cup, but a gram or ounce is always a gram or ounce. Metric weights, such as a gram or ounce, are most accurate. Cup measurements are standard where I live, so that is why I offer my recipes in both cup and metric measurements.

When I’m developing recipes for my website and books, I weigh the ingredients in my recipe testing. Some may say weighing ingredients is a waste of time, but if you want the most precise results, weighing your ingredients will help. No need to spoon & level ingredients if you’re weighing them, but if a recipe instructs you sift the ingredient, it’s still best to do so before or after weighing (depending which the recipe instructs).

  • Here is (affiliate link) the food scale I own.
  • Place your measuring cup on the scale, zero it out, then add your ingredient.

Though it’s best to use the weights given if the recipe supplies them, you can refer to the following list if needed. Different products and brands could have different weights, but this is what I usually measure common baking ingredients to be.

Common Weights
  • 1 cup all-purpose flour = 125 grams (4 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour = 118 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup bread flour = 130 grams (4 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup cake flour = 118 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted cake flour = 105 grams (3 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup (packed) brown sugar = 200 grams (7 1/2 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup butter = 1 stick = 115 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup chocolate chips = 180 grams (6 1/4 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup natural unsweetened cocoa powder = 41 grams (1.6 ounces)
  • 1 cup confectioners’ sugar = 120 grams (4 1/4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted confectioners’ sugar = 115 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1/4 cup cornstarch = 28 grams (1 ounce)
  • 1 cup granulated sugar = 200 grams (7 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 Tablespoon honey = 21 grams (3/4 ounce)
  • 1/2 cup maple syrup = 156 grams (5 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup milk = 227 grams (240ml; 8 ounces)
  • 1/4 cup molasses = 85 grams (3 ounces)
  • 1 cup oats = 85 grams (3 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup peanut butter = 135 grams (4 3/4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sour cream or yogurt = 227 grams (8 ounces)
measuring flour on the kitchen scale

Want to Learn More?

My Baking Tips section is growing!

Reader Questions and Reviews

  1. I love learning about baking & baking tips- I look forward to your posts every week. Thank you for another great post Sally and helping us become great bakers- We all appreciate it extremely much! ❤️❤️❤️

  2. Hi Sally! I started using a scale with a popular flour sites recipes years ago. Your measurements differ from theirs, so I’ve always found it confusing that measurements aren’t the same across the board. There’s some other blogs I follow and their measurements are different yet. If a site has no measurements, I use the ones I’ve come to know. The one thing I can always count on, 1 stick of butter never weighs 113 grams! Hahaa!

  3. I had no idea that there was a difference in liquid measuring cups vs the other kind. I’ve been using the same for either dry or liquid!

  4. On my kitchen scale which is used most days, to zero out as you called yours, my button says “tare” which means the same. So put your vessel on the scale and then push tare and the scale goes to zero.

  5. Sorry Sally, this may be a very silly question, but how is the same cup measurement different in grams? For example, 1 know a cup equals 125g, so if i did not own cups, I would weigh 125 grams for sugar or flour or whatever i need. I am so confused..

    1. Hi Farzana, All ingredients have a different weight/mass. For example, all purpose flour is heavier than cake flour, therefore one cup of all purpose flour would weight more.

  6. This is such a helpful post, thank you Sally! Another tip I have for measuring flour is to mix it around in the container with a whisk before spooning and leveling; I find that if the flour has been in there for a long time, it seems to settle down and become more compact, so whisking it fluffs it up a little. I live in Canada (Nanaimo to be exact), and all the butter here comes in two-cup blocks. We used to live close to the American border and would go over to Spokane to go to the Costco there, where we would get butter in 1/2 cup sticks. It is more convenient for measuring 🙂

  7. Hi Sally! I am a FACS teacher in North Central Minnesota and I’m attaching a link to this post for my students to read your post and watch the video. I have questions they have to answer from your video. Thanks for helping me in my distance/online teaching I have been doing!!!

  8. Could you include whole wheat flour in your chart/PDF? I know that you use that kind of flour in a few of your recipes but it was missing from your chart. Thanks!

  9. Hi Sally! I love your tutorials and your emails to remind me to bake more. I have a question of converting from your Zucchini Bread recipe. I cannot find the Organic Blue Agave’ in my area. I have Organic granulated sugar (Brown), is the 1/2 Cup of Agave the same as a 1/2 Cup of granulated?

    Thank you for bring back the fun in baking.

  10. Am so confused about the measurements and really need to learn it..thanks for tutorials.God bless

  11. Hello Miss Sally:
    Thank you for taking the time to share all these tips with us. I am gone from home for long periods of time. I am an over the road truck driver. When I am home, I enjoy baking because it requires me to slow down and actually unwind a bit. My wife and I are both diabetic and I am trying to cut down on sugar intake by using sugar substitutes. The problem is that the substitutes cause my baked goods to turn out HORRIBLE. Is there ANYTHING that you can offer as a suggestion. Thank you again. Dave

    1. Hi Dave, I wish I could help but I don’t have any experience with low or no sugar baking, or sugar substitutes in baking. I recommend finding recipes that are formulated for sugar substitutes and I know there are many online depending on the sugar substitute you have or are familiar with.

  12. Hi Sally!
    I’ve recently found your website, and it’s wonderful!
    I live in the UK, where we measure by weight, but I’m interested in trying cups for some US recipes. Can you tell me which cup measurements you use, or which you recommend? I believe there are 2 US cups sizes (1 cup=240ml) and (1 cup=237ml). Which do you recommend?
    Thank you so much for such an informative site, and delicious recipes! K ♡

    1. It will be more user friendly if your measurements are in metric units as US measurements is not universal.

      1. Then it wouldn’t be very user-friendly for US users. I have all kinds of little conversion sharts, laminated and magnetized, posted in my kitchen

        And is a tablespoon still 4 teaspoons in Australia instead of the standard 3 in US?

        And then watch out for those recipes using a pint as the conversions in UK, AU & NZ a pint would be 20 fl oz vs the US 16 fl oz. So you really just have to be aware of the differences and have your own conversion tables handy

  13. Hi Sally, I have a recipe that calls for one pack of chocolate. What measurement do you think that would be?

    1. Hi Janis, Without knowing the recipe, what kind of chocolate, etc. it’s very difficult to say.

  14. Hi Sally,
    We don’t have All Purpose Flour labelled here in Ireland not sure if Plain flour (cream flour) is the same to AFP? I noticed as well when baking bread roll (pandesal) using plain flour or self raising flour it turns out too densed should I do the cake flour recipe AFP with corn flour? Any suggestions?

    1. Hi Rei, plain flour is the best equivalent to use in recipes that call for all-purpose flour.

  15. So when a recipe calls for 1 cup of sifted cake flour, does this mean I sift a bunch of flour, and from that, I spoon and level the sifted flour into the measuring cups? I’m just a bit confused about how to measure the sifted flour.

  16. Thank you, Sally, for giving the CORRECT way to measure flour (spoon and level). I always see the chefs on Food Network SCOOPING the flour into the measuring cup, and it drives me NUTS! I’ve heard that weighing ingredients is the most accurate way to measure ingredients, but I’ve never bothered with that. It’s always been cups and spoons (volume) for me, and that method has always held me in good stead. When my grandmother baked, she never measured anything, and her baked goods always came out great. Me? I’m the exact opposite. I’m obsessive about precise measurements.

    1. Hi Alexander, The video is displayed under the bold words “How to Properly Measure Baking Ingredients” after the first long paragraph. Give the video right below a few seconds to load. It’s a faded horizontal collage of three photos. Click on the play button/triangle in the center to play it. Make sure any ad blockers are temporarily paused on your browser. The video is also on our YouTube!

  17. Hi Sally, if 1 stick of butter equals 1/2 cup and 1 stick = 113g, why is 1/2 cup also listed as 115grams? Is 1/2 a cup of butter 113g or 115g? Very confused about how I should weigh if not using stick butter, just getting started with using a scale.

    1. Hi Gwen, anywhere between 113-115 grams works when a recipe calls for 1/2 cup of butter. For 1 cup, I usually use 230g.

  18. Hi Sally!

    Thank you for always including weight measurements in your recipes! I grew up baking with cup measurements but now I love using my scale because I don’t have to get out my measuring cups. I always look for this when I’m researching recipes.

  19. 7.5oz for cup of sugar might be incorrect (1 cup sugar = 200g = 7oz).
    1/2 c. cocoa powder = 41g (1.4 oz not 1.6oz?)
    1 cup chocolate chips = 180g (6 1/3 oz not 6 1/4oz?)
    1 cup oats = 80g (2.8oz not 3oz?…you have 85g listed as 3oz for molasses and that’s correct 🙂 80g is lil less–idk maybe most not myself people round up lol?)

    Rest of the info and the time it took to assemble was very much appreciated…filled in some gaps in conversions I’ve recorded from my own measurements.

  20. Hi Sally,
    Can you please explain the difference between a dry measuring cup and a liquid measuring cup? If I use a liquid cup to measure dry ingredients, what happens?
    My mother always used a liquid cup to measure everything. My husband got me in the habit of using dry and liquid cups but I sometimes wonder if it really makes a difference.
    Thank you for all these tips btw! I’m learning so much!

  21. How would measure a thick hearty vegetable soup? As a liquid ( since it’s soup) or more as a solid?

    1. Hi Joyce! We would measure vegetable soup as a liquid.

  22. Even if it’s real thick? I don’t know if you have ever heard of this soup because it’s a ww recipe. It’s Hobo Soup. Very thick and hearty.

  23. Hello, Sally and team! A question about sifting when you weigh ingredients. For a recipe that calls for “sifted flour,” can I sift the flour directly into a bowl on my scale? Or, should I sift it into a separate bowl and then spoon it into the bowl on my scale? Thank you! Sam

    1. Hi Sam! If the recipe calls for “sifted flour,” you’ll want to sift the flour then measure — either of those methods should work fine, but it might be easier to do it in a separate bowl and then spoon it into the bowl on your scale. Hope this helps!

  24. Hello, Sally. I have a question. For sticky ingredients, like honey, molasses, light corn syrup, and ketchup, what measuring cup do I use–dry or wet?

    For brown sugar, is it accurate to pack it down in the dry measuring cup as I go until I reach overflow level, and then level it?

    I wonder why you can simply dip your measuring spoon in a container of baking soda and/or baking powder. Would you also spoon and level it as well–would that be accurate?

    Thank you for your help.

    1. Hi Allison, We recommend a dry measuring cup. See the above section in the post “Semi Liquids” for more details, and also watch Sally measure these in the video above (the tip about spraying the dry measuring cups in the video for extra sticky ingredients is great!). You could spoon and level your baking soda or baking powder, but it’s such a small amount that it’s not heavy enough to get packed down in the measuring spoon so scooping and then leveling it should be just fine.

      1. Hi, Stephanie! Thank you so much. That’s great to hear; I would use a dry measuring cup for light corn syrup and ketchup as well? I’m making sure.

  25. I rarely comment on recipe blogs but thank you for this information! I learned Ive been measuring flour all wrong! I’m going to try your lemon blueberry cake recipe! Thank you for providing all of this great information!

  26. Hi Sally! First off-I LOVE your blog and have made so many successful recipes from your website. So thank you! I have a question about flour– weighing and leveling, etc.
    If I weigh the flour, is it also necessary to spoon and level? I usually just weigh because that seems the most precise. Thank you!

    1. Hi Elise! Weighing ingredients is the most accurate way to measure – no need to spoon and level if you’re weighing.

  27. Hi sally
    Can you tell me for 1/2 cup of flour how much will be measurements for the other ingredients

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