How to Properly Measure Baking Ingredients

With a video tutorial and in-depth explanations, learn how to properly measure baking ingredients and why measuring is so crucial in baking.

flour butter milk eggs and sugar

With every recipe I publish, my goal is to help you become a more confident baker. Baking from scratch doesn’t have to be difficult. If you’re set up with the right resources and tools, you can put the FUN back into your kitchen.

Today we’re focusing on something that may seem trivial to you, but it’s the most important step in every recipe you bake. Measuring ingredients properly is imperative. You see, baking is not very forgiving. It’s a science and estimating measurements could spell disaster. While you can easily get away with a handful of this or that when you’re cooking dinner, even the slightest baking miscalculation could turn your soft chocolate chip cookies into rocks. Understanding the correct measuring technique for a particular ingredient will guarantee better baking results. Because the difference between a recipe success and a recipe failure could lie within 1 mis-measured ingredient. 

When it comes to baking, it pays off to be a perfectionist. Learn how to properly measure baking ingredients so your next recipe is a success.


How to Properly Measure Baking Ingredients


FLOUR

Flour is the most common mis-measured ingredient. Whether you’re using bread flour, cake flour, all-purpose flour, or any other flours on the market, use the “spoon & level” method. Do not scoop the flour out of the container/bag with your measuring cup because you could end up with 50% more than you need. Rather, using a spoon, scoop the flour into the measuring cup. Do not pack the flour down and do not tap the measuring cup as both cause the flour to settle in the cup. After you’ve spooned the flour into the measuring cup, use the back of a knife to level off the top of the measuring cup.

  • Drill this in your head: Spoon & level flour. Do not scoop flour.
  • How do I measure sifted flour? If a recipe calls for “1 cup of flour, sifted” — measure the flour, then sift it. If a recipe calls for “1 cup of sifted flour” — sift the flour then measure. It all depends where the word “sifted” is in the ingredient wording. If “sifted” is before the ingredient name, sift before measuring. If “sifted” is after the ingredient name, sift after measuring.

My favorite containers for bulk storing ingredients are these tightly sealed flour keepers. (Affiliate link, I love them!) I own about 10 and recommend them to anyone who asks. I use them for my all-purpose flour, cake flour, bread flour, brown sugar, granulated sugar, and more. They hold 3.8 quarts, which is about one 5 lb bag of flour. I use a label maker to make labels for each– they’re placed on top.

flour storage containers


OATS

Make sure you are using the correct type of oats that your recipe calls for. To measure oats, use the same spoon & level method that you use for flour.

Whole oats and quick oats are different and depend on the cut of the oat. I most often use old-fashioned whole rolled oats in recipes like granola, oatmeal bars, and oatmeal cookies. Quick oats are finely chopped whole oats that have a more powdery consistency. When a more powdery, fine oat is ideal in a recipe, I use quick oats. To avoid having two different types of oats on hand in my baking supplies, I make my own quick oats from whole oats. This is very easy: pulse whole oats in a blender or food processor about 5-10 times to break them up to reach the quick oat consistency.


BAKING POWDER & BAKING SODA

Baking powder and baking soda can settle down in their containers over time. Shake it up or give it a stir, then using a measuring spoon, lightly scoop out of the container. Use a knife (or the container if it has a leveler) to level it off.

Always remember the difference between baking powder and baking soda. Each expire after 6 months, though I find they begin losing strength after 3 months. Write the date on the box so you know when to replace.


DRY YEAST

Standard packets of yeast hold 2 and 1/4 teaspoons, which is 1/4 ounce. If your recipe calls for more or less than 1 standard packet of yeast (or if you are measuring out of a jar or container), measure yeast how you measure baking powder or baking soda.

  • Dry yeast can be sold as active-dry or instant. I answer plenty of yeast FAQs, including the difference between yeasts, on my Baking with Yeast page.
  • If a recipe calls for dry yeast and you only have cake yeast (aka fresh yeast), use this handy conversion chart.

WHITE GRANULATED SUGAR

Unlike flour, sugar is measured by scooping the measuring cup or spoon into the container/bag until it is overflowing, then leveling it off with the back of a knife. Sugar is heavier than flour, so it’s less likely to pack down into the measuring cup. It’s also more forgiving in recipes than other ingredients because the sweetness of a finished product depends on your tastebuds. However, it is always best to measure the ingredients exactly as the recipe states because sugar crystals are imperative to break down other ingredients. Sugar also aids in proper browning, texture, structure, and stabilization.


BROWN SUGAR

Measure brown sugar like you measure granulated sugar. Unless the recipe states otherwise, brown sugar should be packed into the measuring cup or measuring spoon. Light brown sugar is most common, while dark brown sugar has a slightly stronger molasses flavor. Unless the recipe states otherwise, you can use light brown sugar and dark brown sugar interchangeably.


CONFECTIONERS’ SUGAR (Powdered Sugar/Icing Sugar)

Measure confectioners’ sugar using the same spoon & level method as flour, explained above. Sift confectioners’ sugar if the recipe calls for it. If your confectioners’ sugar is extra lumpy though, it’s best practice to sift it anyway. (No one wants pockets of powdered sugar in their otherwise smooth whipped cream!) As detailed above in the Flour section, 1 cup confectioners’ sugar, sifted means that the sugar is sifted after measuring and 1 cup sifted confectioners’ sugar means that the sugar is sifted before measuring.


COCOA POWDER

Whether you’re using natural or dutched cocoa, measure cocoa powder using the same spoon & level method as flour and confectioners’ sugar. Like confectioners’ sugar, cocoa powder can clump up. If a recipe calls for sifting it, make sure you take the time to do so.

two kinds of cocoa powder


LIQUID SWEETENERS

Liquid sweeteners include maple syrup, molasses, honey, corn syrup, agave, etc. Measure these thick and sticky liquids in dry measuring cups.

  • A handy tip: To easily measure sticky sweeteners, spray the inside of the measuring cup lightly with nonstick spray. This will make it much easier to get the sweetener out of the cup!

LIQUIDS

Liquids used in baking such as milk, water, oil, etc should be measured at eye level. Using a liquid measuring cup, pour the liquid into the cup. Then, bend down to make sure the liquid is EXACTLY at level with the measuring requirement of the recipe.


SEMI-LIQUIDS

The semi-liquids I’m referring to here are ingredients like sour cream, yogurt, peanut butter, applesauce, mashed banana, etc. Measure these semi-liquid ingredients in dry measuring cups. They are too thick to be accurately measured in liquid measuring cups. Spoon & level, like you do with sugar or flour, then use a rubber spatula to help release the ingredients into the mixing bowl.

  • What about butter? Butter is usually sold in sticks, either 1/2 cup (8 Tablespoons) sticks or 1/4 cup (4 Tablespoons) sticks. This makes measuring very convenient– simply slice off however much you need in a recipe. If your butter isn’t in stick form, use a dry measuring cup to measure it. If a recipe calls for melted butter, measure the butter in its solid state, then melt it.

ADD-INS

The add-ins I’m referring to here are chocolate chips, chopped fruit, sprinkles, nuts, etc. Simply scoop or pour them into a dry measuring cup. These ingredients aren’t typically used to make up the structure of a baked good, so there’s no need to be as precise.

ingredients measured in measuring cups


I find the following measurement equivalents helpful.

Dry Ingredient Equivalents:

  • 1 Tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
  • 1/8 cup = 2 Tablespoons
  • 1/4 cup = 4 Tablespoons
  • 1/3 cup = 5-1/3 Tablespoons
  • 1/2 cup =  8 Tablespoons
  • 2/3 cup = 10 and 2/3 Tablespoons
  • 3/4 cup = 12 Tablespoons
  • 1 cup = 16 Tablespoons

Liquid Ingredient Equivalents:

  • 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = 1/2 pint
  • 2 cups = 16 fluid ounces = 1 pint
  • 4 cups = 32 fluid ounces = 2 pints = 1 quart
  • 8 cups = 64 fluid ounces = 4 pints
  • 4 quarts = 128 fluid ounces = 1 gallon

Free Printable PDF: Sally’s Baking Addiction Measurement Equivalents


Use a Kitchen Scale to Measure

A cup isn’t always a cup, but a gram or ounce is always a gram or ounce. Metric weights, such as a gram or ounce, are most accurate. Cup measurements are standard where I live, so that is why I offer my recipes in both cup and metric measurements.

When I’m developing recipes for my website and books, I weigh the ingredients in my recipe testing. Some may say weighing ingredients is a waste of time, but if you want the most precise results, weighing your ingredients will help. No need to spoon & level ingredients if you’re weighing them, but if a recipe instructs you sift the ingredient, it’s still best to do so before or after weighing (depending which the recipe instructs).

  • Here is (affiliate link) the food scale I own.
  • Place your measuring cup on the scale, zero it out, then add your ingredient.

Though it’s best to use the weights given if the recipe supplies them, you can refer to the following list if needed. Different products and brands could have different weights, but this is what I usually measure common baking ingredients to be.

Free Printable PDF: Sally’s Baking Addiction Common Weight Conversions

Common Weights

  • 1 cup all-purpose flour = 125 grams (4 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour = 118 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup bread flour = 130 grams (4 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup cake flour = 118 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted cake flour = 105 grams (3 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup (packed) brown sugar = 200 grams (7 1/2 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup butter = 1 stick = 115 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup chocolate chips = 180 grams (6 1/4 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup natural unsweetened cocoa powder = 41 grams (1.6 ounces)
  • 1 cup confectioners’ sugar = 120 grams (4 1/4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted confectioners’ sugar = 115 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1/4 cup cornstarch = 28 grams (1 ounce)
  • 1 cup granulated sugar = 200 grams (7 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 Tablespoon honey = 21 grams (3/4 ounce)
  • 1/2 cup maple syrup = 156 grams (5 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup milk = 227 grams (240ml; 8 ounces)
  • 1/4 cup molasses = 85 grams (3 ounces)
  • 1 cup oats = 80 grams (3 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup peanut butter = 135 grams (4 3/4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sour cream or yogurt = 227 grams (8 ounces)

measuring flour on the kitchen scale


Want to Learn More?

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122 Comments

  1. Thank you so much for the list of ingredient weights converted from volumes. I have been looking for just such a list, as I prefer weighing ingredients versus volumetric measures, for improved consistency.

  2. Anam Saleem says:

    Thank you so much for the list of ingredient weights converted from volumes. Such a helpful read. Majority of the website with recipes do not really go into detail about all the do’s and dont’s . Thankkkss 😀

  3. Donna Robinson says:

    Do you have any suggestions for converting your recipes using sugar and flour alternatives, such as stevia and coconut sugar and flour? Thank you. Found this measuring blog helpful

    1. I don’t, I’m so sorry. I like to use coconut sugar in muffins and quick breads. I often do an even substitution, cup for cup.

  4. Thanks!!! Love your tips!!! Very hellpfull..
    Let me ask you: i make a lot of sugar butter cookies.
    The first time that i roll the dough, the cookies cone out at a perfect shape ( from the cookie cutter).  I collect the extra dough , to spread it again.
    This time the cookies short themselves. I don’t know what to do.
    Hope you understand me, because of my English!!
    Thanks in advance!!

  5. I love your recipes and I homeschool my children.  This year for science I am doing Food For Today and wanted to incorporate Cooking for my daughter who is almost 14.  I was making your chocolate Zuchinni cake and came across your Baking Basics and your cook book.  This is so perfect for her.  I have read many of your baking basics and am so excited to use them with her.  I have printed off several of them, but I have a suggestion for you, you should make a book, they are truly good and give me a good base to start with, with her.  Thank you so much for providing this, I am excited to get started with her and for her to start baking from your cook book, which I just recently purchased.  Happy Baking.

    1. A book of baking basics tips? I love that idea! Thanks Diane 🙂

  6. Sally I so much love your recipe they are amazing

  7. I have been trying to put together a master list of weights for common ingredients. I see you got your list from King Arthur. I also see on my canister of rolled oats a 1/2 cup serving dry is 40 grams – so 1 cup would be 80 grams, not the 95 that you and KA list. I wonder why the discrepancy. Thanks 🙂

  8. Hi Sally. For your recipes calling for sifted flour, do you measure first and then sift or do you sift and then measure? Thanks for your feedback.

  9. I will never understand why you Americans don’t weigh ingredients like almost the entire world. Sally, for that reason I am extra grateful that you provide metric conversions for your recipes.

    Thanks for this very convenient conversion chart, I will print it and put it close to the oven when I bake from another American site again.

  10. Hi Sally!
    I was reading trough the Chocolate Chip Cookie Cake and the chocolate cookie (that Im baking now ^_^) recipe and I ended up reading your suggestion/explanation (measure is everything) to how to measure flour with a spoon!I have always been really concerned about how to measure a spoon, 1/2 spoon of something… but I still don’t get the difference between scoop and spoon & level…. would it be possible for you do add the amount of the ingredients in gr instead of n° of spoon or maybe both? Or is there any other way to explain how to do not over measure ingredients? Thank you very much!

  11. Sadie Johannsson says:

    You LOVE what you do and it shows. I think it’s really generous of you to share your knowledge. I too LOVE to bake and I’m always looking for the trivial answers I’m either not able to find or would have found if I had gone to culinary school. I appreciate your enthusiasm, sense of humor and sharing your wealth of knowledge.

    1. Thank you so much for the kind comment!

  12. Hi Sally,
    thank you for all of your YUMMY recipes! I tried your lemon cupcakes and unfortunately they came out a little dry… I read your spoon & level measuring and think maybe that could’ve been the reason why.. I scooped :(… do you think this is why they were dry? or could too much zest do that?
    Please help! 🙂

  13. Reading your instruction how to measure is very helpful, even for a seasoned baker.
    I would guess using baking soda that has been in the frig or freezer is a no-no ?
    Thanks for yummy recipes 

  14. Hi Sally!! The chart at KAF has all-purpose flour at 120 grams, but you have 125g. I am assuming you use the 125 g in your own recipes, but I am curious why the change? Super geek alert!! Hahaha! (Loving your new site, too – WOW! )

    1. Hi Stephanie! 125g is what I usually measure for 1 cup of all-purpose flour when I’m in the kitchen testing recipes. So glad you enjoy the new website layout and design. I appreciate you letting me know!!

    2. King Arthur flour has a slightly higher protein content that other grocery store flours, which changes the weight per cup. If you use KA flour, use their chart. Also, look at the nutritional panel and it will generally telling you the weight per serving size.

  15. deborah donnelly says:

    I guess I am doing most of these right,thanks to my mother.
    I had read that weighing is the best way to measure & do refer to it at times when in doubt.
    I’ve saved this in case my melon starts forgetting ,at my age its possible,lol.

  16. Thanks for this great post! Tons of good info included. If you are a new baker, read this post and follow Sally’s advice. It’s spot on! I would like to recommend a measuring that I love to use. It is from a company that does Home parties. Nope, not a rep, justsharing info. It is the BEST measurer I have ever found for thick or sticky things. I use mine for peanut butter, honey, sour cream, mayo, you get the idea. It is called measure all and comes in 3 sizes. Try it, you’ll be hooked too.

  17. This is a wealth of info ALL IN ONE SPOT!!!! I love it. Thanks

  18. This is FANTASTIC! I’m not a ‘baker’ but I m often baking, lol. Thankfully (for those eating my creations) not all of this was new to me, but enough of it is. Thank you for compiling all of this into one place–pinning & printing!!

  19. If measurement is science, then why do you measure flour by cups? and with possible mistake in packing the flour in the measurement cup. Why not measure it by weight?

    And while discussing that, if it is science, then why use imperial system? Why not metric? I love this website and your recipe, but everytime I have to translate lbs to kg, cups to liter, I want to bang my head against the nearest wall.

    Complaints aside, I genuinely loves your work!

    1. When I’m baking, I typically measure by weight using my scale. However most of my readers use cup measurements so I offer them both in my written recipes. Thank you so much!

  20. Such a wonderful lesson!!!! I hope I won’t make any more mistakes … added more useful tips

  21. Can I use a direct replacement of gluten free flour such as Pamela’s mix or almond flour?

  22. Hi,
    Just came across your baking list. What a nice delight to see weights especially with the flours. Could you tell me if gluten free flour like Robin Hood gluten all purpose or Bobs Mill 1-1 baking flour would be the same weight as reg all purpose flour? Thank you.

    1. Hi Karen, I honestly don’t have much experience baking with gluten free flour!

    2. What about egg size. I assume it matters…but I’d like to be sure

  23. You can summarize this entire chapter by just one simple comment: weigh your ingredients… Forget cups, teaspoons, tablespoons, my goodness, why are people still making it difficult for themselves with these inaccurate measurements! Weight on this planet is everywhere the same, a gram is a gram in Europe, the America’s , Japan and Australia. A table spoon differs by country. The amount of flour in a cup, thus measured by volume instead of weight, differs every batch and type of flour. It even depends on how tight you pack it in the cup… C’mon people, grams! (or ounces, if necessary)

    1. That’s so true. I always use precise weighing, even if a recipe uses cups and tablespoons. There are a lot of cooking converter apps, like NomNom, that help you do that.

  24. Hello Sally,
    THANK YOU!!! I love your blog. I haven’t actually tried any of your recipes YET, but I’m collecting quite a few that look & sound AMAZING!!! After we finish our move & get settled I can see myself making a wonderful Afternoon Tea – with your help!!! Thanks again.

  25. Hi Sally. I only discovered your website a couple of months ago but already a huge fan! Here’s a question that has really bugged me for a while now: I’ve been getting huge discrepancies when measuring flour with cups and scale, even when following the spoon instead of scoop technique. Now I realize one of the problem might simply be that baking experts don’t seem to agree on the equivalence itself! You have 1 cup =115gr listed for all purpose flour while Cook’s Illustrated has it as 1cup= 142 gr (1cup=156gr for whole wheat!). Any idea what’s that about? Thanks! (Here’s where I’m getting their chart from: https://www.cooksillustrated.com/how_tos/5490-baking-conversion-chart)

    1. Hi Marine! I usually get around 125 grams for 1 cup of spoon and leveled flour. Of course that varies by brand. I always bake with King Arthur Flour.

      1. ROBERT LUNT says:

        Thanks Sally for some lovely cake recipes, over here in England we use as an average 25 grams to the ounce, although in reality its actually 28.3 also our pint is 20 fluid ounces or 1 LB. hope this helps some who maybe confused over here. once again thanks also normally we would use 1oz. to 1 LB of flour in something like a square mix. also to make special cake flour we add 1 oz of cornflour to 7oz, of SR flour sifted well.

        RobL

  26. This is so wonderful – apologies if you’ve answered elsewhere but are these baking tips available in one of your books? If not, I would gladly pay a couple of dollars to download a printable version of this! I’m teaching my sons to bake and these are really good lists I’d like to show them. Cheers! Julie

    1. Hi Julie! All of my books include 1-3 pages of baking tips and suggested baking tools and measurements. Lots of helpful information in each of them, including some of the information in this blog post. 🙂

  27. Laurie Lehman says:

    To clarify weighing method. For example:

    Cake recipe calls for “3 cups (345 g) sifted all-purpose flour.

    Do I weigh out 345 grams and then sift
    OR
    sift flour and then weigh out 345 grams?

    Ive been doing the weighing process but kind of wondering if I’m doing incorrectly sometimes.

    I guess if the word “sifted” comes first then basically you should always sift THEN measure out or weigh??

    Thanks!

    1. Hi Laurie! If the word “sift” comes before the ingredient, sift before measuring. If the word sift comes AFTER the ingredient, sift after measuring. 1 cup sifted cake flour = sift before measuring. 1 cup cake flour, sifted = sift after measuring.

      Hope this helps!

      1. Glenna Turner says:

        I just found this blog and I’m learning so much.
        I always weigh anything dry that’s more than 1/4 cup. To reply to Laurie’s situation, 100 gm of a dry ingredient will always be 100 gm, whether sifted or not. That said, I always weigh the dry ingredients listed in the recipe, then sift them, especially flour, confectioner’s sugar and cocoa and my results are consistent (and in much demand by family, friends, and coworkers).

      2. Would it make a difference which you do first if you are weighing the item? Wouldn’t 345gms of flour be the same sifted or unsifted? BTW just found your site and love it. I made your snickerdoodles and they came out great. I am science oriented and Your explanations make sense. Thank you.

    2. The beauty of using weights to measure ingredients rather than volume is that you never have to worry about whether you sift – or spoon, or level, or pack, or grind or whatever – before or after you weigh. The weight is the same regardless of whether you process before or after weighing.
      Another thing I like about measurements in weights rather than volume is that I live in the UK, where the sugar we normally use for baking is slightly finer than the sugar used in the US. A cup of UK sugar will therefore hold a little more actual sugar than a cup of US sugar (assuming I’m using the same cup – though you can get cups in the UK for baking I don’t think they’re as accurate as those in the US). If the recipe is written with weights it’s easily converted using UK sugar.

  28. Is it okay to convert someone’s cake recipe from volume to weight measurements? Or does it need to be checked on a case by case basis with the recipe creator?

    For example, a recipe I want to use calls for 2 cups + 2 tablespoons of flour. According to the calculator at, this equals 254 grams. Would this be appropriate and correct?

  29. I found you when I was looking for a pie crust recipe (which I use exclusively). I’ve learned so much from you since then. Thanks for this chart!

  30. Jeffrey VanderKlip says:

    Hello Sally, I’m a retired 70 year male, who likes to bake. I have printed this (these) tips for reference. My question is, I like use the best Vanilla I can find and have started to use Nielsen-Massey Vanilla. I’ve been using it at a 1 to 1 ratio, would that be a correct assumption?

    1. Hi Jeffrey, That is a very good brand to use! Yes, it’s the same ratio of vanilla for Nielsen-Massey as other brands. Happy baking!

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