Measuring is EVERYTHING

Learn how to correctly measure your baking ingredients-- recipe disasters usually stem from mis-measured ingredients!

Fellow bakers! Welcome back to my Baking Basics series. Cue little dance in the kitchen holding a whisk.

Ooooh before I forget (which, let’s face it, always happens)… I shared another post in my photography section yesterday!

Today we’re focusing on something that may seem trivial to you, but it is easily the most important step in every recipe you bake. Measuring ingredients properly is imperative. The difference between a recipe success and a recipe failure could lie within 1 mis-measured tablespoon of flour or sugar. I’m being serious!

Baking is not very forgiving. It is a science. (Nerds unite.) Estimating the measurements of an ingredient in a recipe spells disaster. While you can easily get away with a handful of this or that when you’re cooking dinner, even the slightest miscalculation could turn your soft-baked chocolate chip cookies into rocks. Understanding the correct measuring technique for a particular ingredient will guarantee better baking results. Soft cookies, fluffy cakes, flaky crust!

Learn how to correctly measure your baking ingredients on

In terms of measuring your ingredients, it pays off to be a perfectionist. 


Flour is the most common mis-measured ingredient.

When measuring flour, use the “spoon & level” method. Do not scoop the flour out of the container/bag with your measuring cup. Believe me, I catch myself doing it often! Scoop the flour and you could end up with 150% of the correct measurement. Rather, using a spoon, scoop the flour into the measuring cup. Do not pack the flour down and do not tap the measuring cup– both cause the flour to settle in the cup. After you’ve spooned the flour into the measuring cup, use the back of a knife to level off the top of the measuring cup.

Drill this in your head: spoon & level flour– do NOT scoop.

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I often use dry old-fashioned rolled oats in recipes like granola, oatmeal bars, or oatmeal cookies. These are also called whole oats. Sometimes I use quick oats, which are finely chopped whole oats. Quick oats have a more powdery consistency than whole oats. I actually never keep quick oats in the house. However, some recipes call for quick oats (when a more powdery, fine oat is ideal). To make my own quick oats, I simply grind up whole oats in the blender or food processor for about 3 seconds. A few quick pulses chops them up into quick-oat-consistency.

Make sure you are using the correct type of oats that the recipe calls for. To measure oats, use the same spoon & level method that you use with flour. (see above!)

Baking Powder & Baking Soda

Shake up the baking powder or baking soda container a bit. Using a measuring spoon, lightly scoop out of the container. Use a knife to level it off.

Always remember the differences between the two. Each expire after 6 months, though I find they begin losing strength after 3 months. Write the date on the box so you know when to replace.

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Active Dry Yeast

Typical yeast packets are 2 and 1/4 teaspoons, which is 1/4 ounce. Measure yeast how you would measure baking powder or soda. Check to see if your yeast is active by sprinkling it in a small dish with 2 Tablespoons of warm water (105F-115F degrees) and waiting about 5 minutes for it to begin foaming. If the mixture does not foam, the yeast is not active. This little step is called proofing the yeast. Some recipes already work “proofing” into the first step.

White (Granulated) Sugar

Unlike flour, sugar is measured by scooping the measuring cup or spoon into the container/bag until it is overflowing, then leveling it off with the back of a knife. Sugar is more forgiving in recipes than other ingredients because the sweetness of a finished product depends on your tastebuds. However, it is always best to measure the ingredients exactly as the recipe states because sugar crystals are imperative to break down other ingredients. Sugar also aids in proper browning and stabilization.

Brown Sugar

Measure brown sugar like you would granulated sugar. Unless the recipe states otherwise, brown sugar should be packed into the measuring cup or measuring spoon. For most of my recipes, I pack the brown sugar.

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Confectioners’ Sugar (Powdered Sugar/Icing Sugar)

I usually always sift confectioners’ sugar. I especially do this when I make frosting to avoid lumps. You don’t always have to sift confectioners’ sugar (unless the recipe calls for it), I just prefer it. Whether you sift or not, confectioners’ sugar must be measured using the spoon & level method– explained in the flour section above.

1 cup confectioners’ sugar, sifted means that the sugar is sifted after measuring.

1 cup sifted confectioners’ sugar means that the sugar is sifted before measuring.

This is the case with any ingredient, not just confectioners’ sugar.

Cocoa Powder

Like confectioners’ sugar, cocoa powder is full of lumps. If a recipe calls for sifting it, make sure you do so. Measure cocoa powder using the spoon & level method, as you would measure flour or confectioners’ sugar.

Learn how to correctly measure your baking ingredients on

Liquid Sweeteners

(maple syrup, agave, honey, molasses)

To easily measure and use sticky liquid sweeteners in your recipe, spray the inside of the measuring cup lightly with nonstick spray. This will make it much easier to get the sweetener out of the cup! I do this with sticky, thick sweeteners every time.

Other Liquid Ingredients

(oil, water, milk)

Liquids like water or oil need to be measured at eye level. Using a liquid measuring cup, pour the liquid into the cup. Then, bend down to make sure the liquid is EXACTLY at level with the measuring requirement from the recipe.

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(chocolate chips, dried fruit, chopped candy, sprinkles, etc)

Easy. Just scoop or pour into the measuring cup. These ingredients aren’t typically used to make up the structure of a baked good.

Semi-Liquid ingredients

(applesauce, yogurt, sour cream, peanut butter, etc)

Measure semi-liquid ingredients in dry measuring cups. They are much too thick to be accurately measured in liquid cups. Spoon & level, like you do with sugar or flour, then use a rubber spatula to help release the ingredients into the mixing bowl.

Learn how to correctly measure your baking ingredients on

I find these baking equivalent charts helpful when I’m in the kitchen.

Dry Ingredient Equivalents:

  • 1 Tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
  • 1/8 cup = 2 Tablespoons
  • 1/4 cup = 4 Tablespoons
  • 1/3 cup = 5-1/3 Tablespoons
  • 1/2 cup =  8 Tablespoons
  • 2/3 cup = 10-2/3 Tablespoons
  • 3/4 cup = 12 Tablespoons
  • 1 cup = 16 Tablespoons

Liquid Ingredient Equivalents:

  • 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = 1/2 pint
  • 2 cups = 16 fluid ounces = 1 pint
  • 4 cups = 32 fluid ounces = 2 pints = 1 quart
  • 8 cups = 64 fluid ounces = 4 pints
  • 4 quarts = 128 fluid ounces = 1 gallon

The most accurate way to measure? Weigh your ingredients!

Learn how to correctly measure your baking ingredients on

Weighing takes out the guesswork.

Weighing is how I measure when developing recipes. Some people might say it’s a waste of time, but if you want the exact results you see on my blog and in my books– weighing your ingredients will help you get there. A cup isn’t always a cup, but a gram/ounce is always a gram/ounce. Here is the food scale I own.

I refer to this master chart often. If you can’t find an ingredient listed below, go there!

Here are a few common ingredients:

  • 1 cup all-purpose flour = 125 grams (4 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour = 115 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup bread flour = 130 grams (4 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted bread flour = 121 grams (4 1/4 ounces)
  • 1 cup (packed) brown sugar = 200 grams (7 1/2 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup butter = 1 stick = 115 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup cake flour = 115 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted cake flour = 100 grams (3 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup chocolate chips = 180 grams (6 1/4 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup natural unsweetened cocoa powder = 41 grams (1.6 ounces)
  • 1 cup confectioners’ sugar = 120 grams (4 1/4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sifted confectioners’ sugar = 115 grams (4 ounces)
  • 1/4 cup cornstarch = 28 grams (1 ounce)
  • 1 cup granulated sugar = 200 grams (7 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 Tablespoon honey = 21 grams (3/4 ounce)
  • 1/2 cup maple syrup = 156 grams (5 1/2 ounces)
  • 1 cup milk = 227 grams (240ml; 8 ounces)
  • 1/4 cup molasses = 85 grams (3 ounces)
  • 1 cup oats = 95 grams (3 ounces)
  • 1/2 cup peanut butter = 135 grams (4 3/4 ounces)
  • 1 cup sour cream or yogurt = 227 grams (8 ounces)
  • 1 cup whole wheat flour = 113 grams (4 ounces)


Q: Did you make it through this novel of information?!

Q: Did you learn anything new?

Good. Now go bake up something incredible!

How to measure all of the common baking ingredients including the #1 mistake you could be making when measuring flour!


  1. Hi,
    Just came across your baking list. What a nice delight to see weights especially with the flours. Could you tell me if gluten free flour like Robin Hood gluten all purpose or Bobs Mill 1-1 baking flour would be the same weight as reg all purpose flour? Thank you.

  2. You can summarize this entire chapter by just one simple comment: weigh your ingredients… Forget cups, teaspoons, tablespoons, my goodness, why are people still making it difficult for themselves with these inaccurate measurements! Weight on this planet is everywhere the same, a gram is a gram in Europe, the America’s , Japan and Australia. A table spoon differs by country. The amount of flour in a cup, thus measured by volume instead of weight, differs every batch and type of flour. It even depends on how tight you pack it in the cup… C’mon people, grams! (or ounces, if necessary)

    1. That’s so true. I always use precise weighing, even if a recipe uses cups and tablespoons. There are a lot of cooking converter apps, like NomNom, that help you do that.

  3. Question… if you taught the importance of measuring to a group of kids, what recipe would you want them to make that would “measure up” with the lesson? Maybe a few different things??? Basic choc chip cookies, peanut butter cookies, sifted flour cupcakes???

  4. Hello Sally,
    THANK YOU!!! I love your blog. I haven’t actually tried any of your recipes YET, but I’m collecting quite a few that look & sound AMAZING!!! After we finish our move & get settled I can see myself making a wonderful Afternoon Tea – with your help!!! Thanks again.

  5. Hi Sally. I only discovered your website a couple of months ago but already a huge fan! Here’s a question that has really bugged me for a while now: I’ve been getting huge discrepancies when measuring flour with cups and scale, even when following the spoon instead of scoop technique. Now I realize one of the problem might simply be that baking experts don’t seem to agree on the equivalence itself! You have 1 cup =115gr listed for all purpose flour while Cook’s Illustrated has it as 1cup= 142 gr (1cup=156gr for whole wheat!). Any idea what’s that about? Thanks! (Here’s where I’m getting their chart from:

    1. Hi Marine! I usually get around 125 grams for 1 cup of spoon and leveled flour. Of course that varies by brand. I always bake with King Arthur Flour.

      1. Thanks Sally for some lovely cake recipes, over here in England we use as an average 25 grams to the ounce, although in reality its actually 28.3 also our pint is 20 fluid ounces or 1 LB. hope this helps some who maybe confused over here. once again thanks also normally we would use 1oz. to 1 LB of flour in something like a square mix. also to make special cake flour we add 1 oz of cornflour to 7oz, of SR flour sifted well.


      2. Hi Sally. I am so grateful for your site. I love baking cakes and I read every word you have to offer.
        One question: can I add almond extract to your vanilla cake? That extra little hint of almond is nice. Thank you very much.

      3. Hi Isabel, Thank you so much – I’m thrilled that you have been enjoying my posts and recipes! You can absolutely add almond extract to my vanilla cakes. I agree that it’s a wonderful addition!

  6. Hi Sally, thanks for sharing your ideas. I would like to know the exact baking powder to use for 2 1/2 cup of flour if I’m not using baking soda or otherwise

  7. This is so wonderful – apologies if you’ve answered elsewhere but are these baking tips available in one of your books? If not, I would gladly pay a couple of dollars to download a printable version of this! I’m teaching my sons to bake and these are really good lists I’d like to show them. Cheers! Julie

    1. Hi Julie! All of my books include 1-3 pages of baking tips and suggested baking tools and measurements. Lots of helpful information in each of them, including some of the information in this blog post. 🙂

  8. To clarify weighing method. For example:

    Cake recipe calls for “3 cups (345 g) sifted all-purpose flour.

    Do I weigh out 345 grams and then sift
    sift flour and then weigh out 345 grams?

    Ive been doing the weighing process but kind of wondering if I’m doing incorrectly sometimes.

    I guess if the word “sifted” comes first then basically you should always sift THEN measure out or weigh??


    1. Hi Laurie! If the word “sift” comes before the ingredient, sift before measuring. If the word sift comes AFTER the ingredient, sift after measuring. 1 cup sifted cake flour = sift before measuring. 1 cup cake flour, sifted = sift after measuring.

      Hope this helps!

      1. I just found this blog and I’m learning so much.
        I always weigh anything dry that’s more than 1/4 cup. To reply to Laurie’s situation, 100 gm of a dry ingredient will always be 100 gm, whether sifted or not. That said, I always weigh the dry ingredients listed in the recipe, then sift them, especially flour, confectioner’s sugar and cocoa and my results are consistent (and in much demand by family, friends, and coworkers).

      2. Would it make a difference which you do first if you are weighing the item? Wouldn’t 345gms of flour be the same sifted or unsifted? BTW just found your site and love it. I made your snickerdoodles and they came out great. I am science oriented and Your explanations make sense. Thank you.

    2. The beauty of using weights to measure ingredients rather than volume is that you never have to worry about whether you sift – or spoon, or level, or pack, or grind or whatever – before or after you weigh. The weight is the same regardless of whether you process before or after weighing.
      Another thing I like about measurements in weights rather than volume is that I live in the UK, where the sugar we normally use for baking is slightly finer than the sugar used in the US. A cup of UK sugar will therefore hold a little more actual sugar than a cup of US sugar (assuming I’m using the same cup – though you can get cups in the UK for baking I don’t think they’re as accurate as those in the US). If the recipe is written with weights it’s easily converted using UK sugar.

  9. Is it okay to convert someone’s cake recipe from volume to weight measurements? Or does it need to be checked on a case by case basis with the recipe creator?

    For example, a recipe I want to use calls for 2 cups + 2 tablespoons of flour. According to the calculator at, this equals 254 grams. Would this be appropriate and correct?

  10. I found you when I was looking for a pie crust recipe (which I use exclusively). I’ve learned so much from you since then. Thanks for this chart!

  11. Hello Sally, I’m a retired 70 year male, who likes to bake. I have printed this (these) tips for reference. My question is, I like use the best Vanilla I can find and have started to use Nielsen-Massey Vanilla. I’ve been using it at a 1 to 1 ratio, would that be a correct assumption?

    1. Hi Jeffrey, That is a very good brand to use! Yes, it’s the same ratio of vanilla for Nielsen-Massey as other brands. Happy baking!

  12. Hi Sally!
    Do you know how much 1 1/2 Cups of DATES would typically weigh?
    Im baking a sort of pie, and the recipe doesnt say exactly what measurements to use for the amount of dates it needs.
    Thank you!

  13. This is a great article! Your link to King Arthur Flour’s master chart doesn’t work any more- could you please tell me what it is called so I can search for it? Thanks!

  14. Can you clarify if a recipes calls for two (2) cups of ground walnuts; are the walnuts measured first and than ground or do you grind the walnuts first and then measure out two (2) cups?

    1. Hi Jelena! If the word “ground” comes before “walnuts” then you grind/process the walnuts before measuring. If the word “ground” comes AFTER “walnuts,” you grind/process after measuring the full walnuts.

  15. I have a question. When measuring ingredients is your chart the measurement for only the ingredient or does it include the vessel it is being measured in? If it doesn’t include the vessel do I need to weigh that vessel first and then add the ingredient?

    1. Summer,
      Your scale should have a button so you can zero out the weight. Just place your bowl (vessel) on the scale and zero out. The scale should show 0 weight and then you can start adding the item you need to weigh. Also if you want to add another ingredient to the same bowl just zero out again and then add each item zeroing out after each. So convenient because you don’t have to dirty up a cup or measuring spoon for each item. hope this is helpful.

  16. Sally, I just discovered your website a few weeks ago. i love to bake when I have time and I am a cake lover so your site is a real find! There are so many recipes I want to try and I am going to do that. I do like that you give weight measurements. I’ve been measuring with a scale for several years after I started using King Arthur’s flours and going to their site for weight conversions for my recipes. Your recipes will save me a lot of time; thanks. I also agree that measuring is more accurate, but also less dishes to clean!! I just zero out my scale before I add the next ingredient in the same bowl if feasible.

    Thanks again and I look forward to trying several of your recipes.

  17. Ahha! Here’s another bad thing I always did. Stick the measuring cup into the bag of flour, wipe off the excess with my finger, tap on the counter a couple of times to get it to settle, & stick a bit more flour in to bring it back to 1 cup.
    Between that, my ‘warm’butter & using the whisk attachment instead of the paddle theres no wonder my cakes keep coming out heavy.

  18. Hi Again.
    Quick question:
    For a fast recipe that i recently found for making cookies, it says to put in ½ cup of oil, but people say in the comment section to substitute in butter because it tastes much better and apparently the oil i have does not go well with the flavour as one commenter stated.
    So my question is:
    *How much butter should i substitute in for a ½ cup of oil?
    *Its for cookies, so should i rather melt or add it in when softened?
    Thank You!!!

    1. Hi Ariffa, If it’s not my recipe that I haven’t tested then it’s difficult to answer. But generally it would be a 1:1 substitute, so 1/2 cup of melted butter for a 1/2 cup of oil.

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I’m Sally, a cookbook author, photographer, and blogger. My goal is to give you the confidence and knowledge to cook and bake from scratch while providing quality recipes and plenty of pictures. Grab a cookie, take a seat, and have fun exploring! more about Sally